Table 2.

Changes in glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and IGF proteins for controls versus exercisers

Baseline4 moChange at 4 mo% Change at 4 mo
Glucose (mmol/L)
    Control (n = 151)4.44 ± 0.034.40 ± 0.03−0.76 ± 0.7−0.50 ± 0.9
    Exercise (n = 165)4.52 ± 0.034.50 ± 0.03−0.39 ± 0.70.08 ± 0.8
    P0.120.040.70.63
Insulin (mU/L)
    Control (n = 151)6.22 (5.7-6.8)6.31 (5.8-6.9)0.10 ± 0.319.0 ± 5.6*
    Exercise (n = 165)6.14 (5.6-6.7)5.82 (5.3-6.3)−0.51 ± 0.38.2 ± 5.4
    P0.840.190.190.16
HOMA index
    Control (n = 151)1.49 ± 0.081.49 ± 0.070.00 ± 0.0720.6 ± 6.2
    Exercise (n = 165)1.48 ± 0.071.37 ± 0.06−0.12 ± 0.079.5 ± 5.9
    P0.950.230.240.19
QUICKI
    Control (n = 151)0.393 ± 0.00.375 ± 0.0−0.02 ± 0.0*−4.50 ± 0.8*
    Exercise (n = 165)0.391 ± 0.00.378 ± 0.0−0.01 ± 0.0*−3.30 ± 0.7*
    P0.160.460.250.25
IGF-I (ng/mL)
    Control (n = 151)394.7 ± 7.8382.1 ± 7.8−11.1 ± 5.5−1.63 ± 1.5
    Exercise (n = 165)386.0 ± 7.4377.3 ± 7.3−9.8 ± 5.2−0.84 ± 1.4
    P0.420.650.870.7
IGFBP-1 (ng/mL)
    Control (n = 151)21.1 (18.9-23.6)20.5 (18.1-23.1)−0.25 ± 1.315.4 ± 7.1*
    Exercise (n = 165)24.5 (22.0-27.2)22.9 (20.4-25.6)−0.90 ± 1.312.2 ± 6.8
    P0.060.180.710.74
IGFBP-2 (ng/mL)
    Control (n = 151)347.6 ± 20.6408.0 ± 21.552.2 ± 14.837.4 ± 24.5*
    Exercise (n = 165)370.6 ± 19.4414.3 ± 20.337.4 ± 14.451.8 ± 23.8*
    P0.410.830.410.64
IGFBP-3 (ng/mL)
    Control (n = 151)4,942.1 ± 69.44,837.1 ± 68.7−103.1 ± 42.6−1.49 ± 0.9
    Exercise (n = 165)4,863.6 ± 65.54,883.9 ± 64.818.7 ± 40.70.99 ± 0.9
    P0.410.620.040.05
IGF-I/IGFBP-3
    Control (n = 151)0.29 ± 0.000.28 ± 0.00−0.317 ± 0.3−0.45 ± 1.1
    Exercise (n = 165)0.29 ± 0.000.28 ± 0.00−0.817 ± 0.3−1.85 ± 1.0
    P0.960.540.220.33

NOTE: Values are expressed either as mean ± SEM or geometric mean (lower CI-upper CI) for baseline data and as mean ± SEM for changes.

Abbreviations: HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index.

  • *Significant change from baseline within treatment group at P < 0.05.

  • Values for change at 4 months were multiplied by 100 to facilitate presentation.