Table 3.

Relative risk (and 95% confidence interval) of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers by quintile of calorie-adjusted acrylamide intake according to menopausal status and BMI, 1980 to 2006

Quintile of calorie-adjusted acrylamide intakeP for trendP for interaction
Q1 (low)Q2Q3Q4Q5 (high)
By menopausal status
    Breast cancer
        Postmenopausal (n)1,0511,0791,1151,012822
        MV RR*1.000.92 (0.84-1.00)0.97 (0.89-1.06)0.93 (0.85-1.01)0.93 (0.84-1.02)0.22
        Premenopausal (n)1651411482012270.27
        MV RR*1.000.96 (0.76-1.21)0.96 (0.76-1.21)1.17 (0.94-1.46)1.07 (0.87-1.33)0.23
    Endometrial cancer
        Postmenopausal (n)7487968865
        MV RR1.001.11 (0.80-1.53)1.36 (0.98-1.88)1.38 (0.98-1.94)1.29 (0.89-1.89)0.11
        Premenopausal (n)1212911210.15
        MV RR1.001.09 (0.46-2.62)1.00 (0.39-2.58)0.85 (0.32-2.26)2.27 (0.96-5.40)0.05
    Ovarian cancer
        Postmenopausal (n)6856716152
        MV RR1.000.90 (0.62-1.30)1.30 (0.91-1.87)1.19 (0.81-1.76)1.16 (0.76-1.78)0.28
        Premenopausal (n)14161619250.30
        MV RR1.001.10 (0.51-2.41)1.48 (0.69-3.17)1.32 (0.61-2.86)1.63 (0.76-3.46)0.19
By BMI
    Breast cancer
        BMI < 25 kg/m2 (n)636629614593541
        MV RR*1.000.96 (0.85-1.07)0.96 (0.85-1.07)0.95 (0.84-1.06)0.92 (0.81-1.03)0.17
        BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (n)6466517176945800.60
        MV RR*1.000.92 (0.82-1.02)1.01 (0.90-1.13)1.01 (0.90-1.13)0.97 (0.86-1.09)0.87
    Endometrial cancer
        BMI < 25 kg/m2 (n)2032384031
        MV RR1.001.70 (0.94-3.09)2.08 (1.15-3.77)2.41 (1.32-4.38)2.51 (1.32-4.77)0.004
        BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (n)68676862570.20
        MV RR1.000.92 (0.64-1.32)1.07 (0.74-1.54)0.99 (0.67-1.46)1.08 (0.72-1.64)0.62
    Ovarian cancer
        BMI < 25 kg/m2 (n)4447483852
        MV RR1.001.27 (0.82-1.97)1.56 (1.00-2.43)1.47 (0.92-2.36)1.84 (1.14-2.97)0.01
        BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (n)44294243290.45
        MV RR1.000.66 (0.40-1.08)1.01 (0.64-1.61)0.95 (0.58-1.54)0.84 (0.49-1.44)0.86
  • *Breast cancer multivariable models adjusted for age in months, calendar year, smoking (never, past <25 cigarettes per day, past ≥25 cigarettes per day, current <25 cigarettes per day, current ≥25 cigarettes per day), BMI (<18.5, 18.5 to <20, 20 to <22.5, 22.5 to <25, 25 to <30, ≥30 kg/m2), height (quartiles), parity and age at first birth (nulliparous, parity 1-2 and age at first birth <25 y, parity 1-2 and age at first birth 25 to <30 y, parity 1-2 and age at first birth ≥30 y, parity 3-4 and age at first birth <25 y, parity 3-4 and age at first birth 25 to <30 y, parity 3-4 and age at first birth ≥30 y, parity ≥5 and age at first birth <25 y, parity ≥5 and age at first birth ≥25 y), family history of breast cancer (yes/no), benign breast disease (yes/no), age at menarche (<13, 13, ≥14 y), physical activity (≤18 or >18 MET-h/wk), folate, glycemic index, and animal fat intake (quintiles), alcohol (continuous; grams per day), and energy intake (continuous; kilocalories per day). Postmenopausal model adjusted for joint age at menopause and PMH use variable (age at menopause <45, 45-52, or >52 y, and PMH use never, former, current <5 y, or current ≥5 y). BMI models adjusted for joint menopausal status, age at menopause, and PMH use variable (premenopausal; uncertain status; postmenopausal and age at menopause <45, 45-52, or >52 y; and PMH use never, former, current <5 y, or current ≥5 y).

  • Endometrial cancer multivariable models adjusted for age in months, calendar year, smoking (see categories for breast cancer), BMI (<20, 20 to <21, 21 to <22, 22 to <23, 23 to <24, 24 to <25, 25 to <27, 27 to <29, 29 to <30, 30 to <32, 32 to <35, 35 to <40, ≥40 kg/m2), age at menarche (<13, 13, ≥14 y), parity (nulliparous, 1-2, 3-4, ≥5), oral contraceptive use (never, 0-3, >3 to <5, ≥5 y of use), high blood pressure (yes/no), diabetes (yes/no), physical activity (≤18 or >18 MET-h/wk), caffeine intake (quintiles), and energy intake (continuous; kilocalories per day). Postmenopausal model adjusted for joint age at menopause and PMH use variable (see categories for breast cancer). BMI models adjusted for joint menopausal status, age at menopause, and PMH use variable (see categories for breast cancer).

  • Ovarian cancer multivariable models adjusted for age in months, calendar year, smoking (see categories for breast cancer), BMI (see categories for breast cancer), parity (see categories for endometrial cancer), oral contraceptive use (see categories for endometrial cancer), tubal ligation (yes/no), physical activity (≤18 or >18 MET-h/wk), caffeine intake (quintiles), and energy intake (continuous; kilocalories per day). Postmenopausal model adjusted for PMH use (never, former, or current). BMI models adjusted for joint menopausal status and PMH use variable (premenopausal, uncertain status, postmenopausal and never PMH use, postmenopausal and former PMH use, and postmenopausal and current PMH use).