Table 2.

Relative risk (and 95% confidence interval) of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers by quintile of calorie-adjusted acrylamide intake, 1980 to 2006

Quintile of calorie-adjusted acrylamide intakeP for trend
Q1 (low)Q2Q3Q4Q5 (high)
Median intake (μg/d)8.712.715.719.025.1
Breast cancer
        No. of cases1,2821,2801,3311,2871,121
        Person-years405,391404,518404,349404,769405,644
        Age-adjusted RR*1.000.94 (0.87-1.02)0.99 (0.92-1.07)0.99 (0.91-1.07)0.94 (0.87-1.02)0.36
        MV RR1.000.93 (0.86-1.01)0.98 (0.91-1.06)0.98 (0.90-1.06)0.95 (0.87-1.03)0.50
    Never smokers only
        No. of cases652610582516392
        Person-years210,666198,085187,783171,665151,532
        Age-adjusted RR*1.000.94 (0.84-1.05)0.96 (0.86-1.08)0.96 (0.85-1.08)0.90 (0.80-1.03)0.21
        MV RR1.000.91 (0.81-1.02)0.93 (0.83-1.05)0.94 (0.84-1.06)0.89 (0.78-1.02)0.18
Endometrial cancer
        No. of cases8810010610288
        Person-years277,776277,073276,839277,409277,789
        Age-adjusted RR*1.001.07 (0.80-1.43)1.17 (0.88-1.56)1.15 (0.86-1.54)1.12 (0.83-1.52)0.41
        MV RR1.001.12 (0.83-1.50)1.31 (0.97-1.77)1.35 (0.99-1.84)1.41 (1.01-1.97)0.03
    Never smokers only
        No. of cases5347595642
        Person-years144,400135,320128,534116,601102,813
        Age-adjusted RR*1.000.93 (0.63-1.39)1.30 (0.89-1.90)1.37 (0.93-2.01)1.31 (0.86-2.00)0.06
        MV RR1.000.97 (0.64-1.46)1.35 (0.90-2.02)1.47 (0.97-2.24)1.43 (0.90-2.28)0.04
Ovarian cancer
        No. of cases8775958178
        Person-years246,187245,523245,327245,667246,155
        Age-adjusted RR*1.000.85 (0.62-1.16)1.10 (0.81-1.47)0.95 (0.70-1.29)1.00 (0.73-1.37)0.78
        MV RR§1.000.93 (0.68-1.29)1.29 (0.94-1.76)1.17 (0.84-1.64)1.25 (0.88-1.77)0.12
    Never smokers only
        No. of cases4038312423
        Person-years126,888118,416112,475101,84991,082
        Age-adjusted RR*1.001.03 (0.65-1.63)0.92 (0.57-1.48)0.82 (0.49-1.37)0.92 (0.54-1.55)0.53
        MV RR§1.001.17 (0.72-1.88)1.04 (0.63-1.74)1.11 (0.63-1.94)1.19 (0.66-2.15)0.63

Abbreviations: RR, relative risk; MV, multivariable.

  • *Age-adjusted models are adjusted for age in months and calendar year.

  • Breast cancer multivariable models additionally adjusted for smoking (never, past <25 cigarettes per day, past ≥25 cigarettes per day, current <25 cigarettes per day, current ≥25 cigarettes per day), BMI (<18.5, 18.5 to <20, 20 to <22.5, 22.5 to <25, 25 to <30, ≥30 kg/m2), height (quartiles), menopausal status/age at menopause/PMH use (premenopausal; uncertain status; postmenopausal and age at menopause <45, 45-52, or >52 y; and PMH use never, former, current <5 y, or current ≥5 y), parity and age at first birth (nulliparous, parity 1-2 and age at first birth <25 y, parity 1-2 and age at first birth 25 to <30 y, parity 1-2 and age at first birth ≥30 y, parity 3-4 and age at first birth <25 y, parity 3-4 and age at first birth 25 to <30 y, parity 3-4 and age at first birth ≥30 y, parity ≥5 and age at first birth <25 y, parity ≥5 and age at first birth ≥25 y), family history of breast cancer (yes/no), benign breast disease (yes/no), age at menarche (<13, 13, ≥14 y), physical activity (≤18 or >18 MET-h/wk), folate, glycemic index, and animal fat intake (quintiles), alcohol (continuous; grams per day), and energy intake (continuous; kilocalories per day).

  • Endometrial cancer multivariable models additionally adjusted for smoking (see categories for breast cancer), BMI (<20, 20 to <21, 21 to <22, 22 to <23, 23 to <24, 24 to <25, 25 to <27, 27 to <29, 29 to <30, 30 to <32, 32 to <35, 35 to <40, ≥40 kg/m2), age at menarche (<13, 13, ≥14 y), menopausal status/age at menopause/PMH use (see categories for breast cancer), parity (nulliparous, 1-2, 3-4, ≥5), oral contraceptive use (never, 0-3, >3 to <5, ≥5 y of use), high blood pressure (yes/no), diabetes (yes/no), physical activity (≤18 or >18 MET-h/wk), caffeine intake (quintiles), and energy intake (continuous; kilocalories per day).

  • §Ovarian cancer multivariable models additionally adjusted for smoking (see categories for breast cancer), BMI (see categories for breast cancer), parity (see categories for endometrial cancer), oral contraceptive use (see categories for endometrial cancer), menopausal status and PMH use (premenopausal, uncertain status, postmenopausal and never used PMH, postmenopausal and former PMH, postmenopausal and current PMH use), tubal ligation (yes/no), physical activity (≤18 or >18 MET-h/wk), caffeine intake (quintiles), and energy intake (continuous; kilocalories per day).