Table 2.

HEP and invasive breast cancer (adjusted ORs; 95% CI, from logistic regression)

ControlsInvasive casesOR* (95%, CI)
n (%)n (%)
Total group6,646 (100)3,257 (100)
Never (reference)5,977 (89.9)3,033 (93.2)1
Ever HEP669 (10.1)224 (6.9)0.74 (0.63-0.87)
    Past HEP410 (6.2)147 (4.5)0.75 (0.62-0.92)
    Current HEP250 (3.8)74 (2.3)0.70 (0.53-0.92)
Duration of HEP (y)
    <1140 (2.1)54 (1.7)0.80 (0.58-1.11)
    1-5392 (5.9)126 (3.9)0.71 (0.57-0.87)
    >5136 (2.0)43 (1.3)0.74 (0.52-1.05)
    OR per year of use, 0.96; Ptrend = 0.03
Ever use of
    Remifemin or Remifemin plus320 (4.8)112 (3.4)0.80 (0.63-1.00)
    Other Cimicifuga89 (1.3)34 (1.0)0.96 (0.64-1.45)
    St. John's Wort20 (0.3)10 (0.3)1.18 (0.54-2.57)
    Phytoestrogens (soy isoflavones and red clover)86 (1.3)20 (0.6)0.64 (0.39-1.05)
    Vitex Agnus castus36 (0.5)6 (0.2)0.40 (0.17-0.97)
    Other specified HEP56 (0.8)11 (0.3)0.48 (0.25-0.93)
    Unknown HEP135 (2.0)47 (1.4)0.77 (0.54-1.08)
Subgroup of women, who had never used HT
Never HEP (Reference)2,396 (89.3)977 (92.3)1
Ever HEP287 (10.7)82 (7.7)0.72 (0.56-0.95)
    Past HEP176 (6.6)50 (4.7)0.72 (0.52-1.01)
    Current HEP107 (4.0)31 (2.9)0.74 (0.49-1.13)
    OR per year of use, 0.97; Ptrend = 0.18
  • *Models adjusted for region (Hamburg, RNK), year of birth (≤1934, 1935-1939, 1940-1944, 1945-1949, ≥1950), hormone use (never, past, current), age at menopause (<47, 47-<52, 52-<56, ≥56 y, unknown), age at menarche (<12, 12-14, ≥15 y, unknown), number of pregnancies (≥28th wk: 0, 1, 2, ≥3), ever breastfed (yes, no), benign breast disease (yes, no, unknown), number of mammograms (0, 1-4, 5-9, ≥10, unknown), first-degree family history of breast cancer (yes, no, unknown), occupational status (for categories see Table 1), and sport (quintiles based on distribution in controls: 1st quintile = no sport; and category “unknown”).

  • Includes primarily Pulsatilla, Rheum rhaponticum.

  • Differences between numbers to Table 1 due to missing values in covariates (crude OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.91) for ever HEP use in subset women.