Table 1.

Characteristics of cases (invasive and in situ) and controls by herbal preparation use

Herbal preparation use (n = 10,108)*ControlsCases (invasive and in situ)
NeverEverNeverEver
n (%; mean SD)n (%; mean SD)n (%; mean SD)n (%; mean SD)
N5,977 (100)669 (100)3,213 (100)249 (100)
Study region
    Hamburg3,274 (54.8)370 (55.3)1,762 (54.8)141 (56.6)
    RNK-region2,703 (45.2)299 (44.7)1,451 (45.2)108 (43.4)
Age (y; mean, SD)63.4 (5.5)60.9 (5.3)63.5 (5.4)60.2 (5.4)
Age at menopause (y; mean, SD)49.5 (5.1)50.1 (4.3)50.0 (4.9)49.9 (4.1)
    Unknown2,220 (37.1)185 (27.7)1,286 (40.0)78 (31.3)
Age at menarche (y)
    <12485 (8.1)54 (8.1)254 (7.9)29 (11.6)
    12-143,744 (62.6)448 (67.0)2,078 (64.7)158 (63.5)
    ≥151,732 (29.0)166 (24.8)876 (27.3)62 (24.9)
Parity (gestation ≥28 wk)
    0916 (15.3)126 (18.8)562 (17.5)46 (18.5)
    11,507 (25.2)175 (26.2)921 (28.7)70 (28.1)
    22,305 (38.6)246 (36.8)1,171 (36.4)101 (40.6)
    ≥31,249 (20.9)122 (18.2)559 (17.4)32 (12.9)
Ever breastfed4,001 (66.9)430 (64.3)2,018 (62.8)155 (62.2)
Family history of breast cancer698 (11.7)76 (11.4)565 (17.6)46 (18.5)
    Unknown353 (5.9)37 (5.5)188 (5.9)7 (2.8)
Ever benign breast disease1,978 (33.1)276 (41.3)1,328 (41.3)116 (46.6)
Mammograms (numbers; mean, SD)5.4 (5.5)5.6 (5.7)6.9 (6.7)6.8 (5.8)
    Unknown52 (0.9)6 (0.9)33 (1.0)0
Occupation
    Blue collar worker736 (12.3)59 (8.8)428 (13.3)20 (8.0)
    Simple employee1,485 (24.8)143 (21.4)763 (23.7)52 (20.9)
    Medium employee2,334 (39.0)281 (42.0)1,237 (38.5)104 (41.8)
    Higher employee1,152 (19.3)156 (23.3)635 (19.8)63 (25.3)
    Leading position244 (4.1)29 (4.3)134 (4.2)10 (4.0)
BMI [age, 25-50 y (kg/m2)]
    ≤22.42,605 (43.6)332 (49.6)1,416 (44.1)113 (45.4)
    22.5-24.91,868 (31.3)202 (30.2)1,025 (31.9)85 (34.1)
    25-29.91,250 (20.9)113 (16.9)664 (20.7)41 (16.5)
    ≥30248 (4.2)22 (3.3)108 (3.4)10 (4.0)
Alcohol intake
    No868 (14.6)87 (13.0)468 (14.6)24 (9.6)
    Low (<19 grams/d)4,343 (72.8)495 (74.0)2,323 (72.4)192 (77.1)
    High (≥19 grams/d)753 (12.6)87 (13.0)416 (13.0)33 (13.3)
Smoking
    Never3,152 (52.8)350 (52.3)1,759 (54.7)124 (49.8)
    Past1,705 (28.5)202 (30.2)849 (26.4)76 (30.5)
    Current1,118 (18.7)117 (17.5)605 (18.8)49 (19.7)
HT
    Never2,396 (40.1)287 (42.9)1,014 (31.6)91 (36.5)
    Past1,442 (24.1)261 (39.0)632 (19.7)81 (32.5)
    Current2,082 (34.8)120 (17.9)1,540 (47.9)77 (30.9)
    Unknown57 (1.0)1 (0.1)27 (0.8)0
Sports (MET*h/wk; mean, SD)7.2 (12.0)8.1 (12.5)7.1 (13.6)7.8 (14.2)
    Unknown20 (0.3)3 (0.4)11 (0.3)0
Diet (n subgroup, %)5,042 (100)574 (100)2,720 (100)222 (100)
Food items (mean, SD)
    Energy intake (cal/d)1,721 (578)1,700 (516)1,767 (645)1,726 (529)
    Total fiber (grams/d)20.5 (7.2)21.2 (6.9)20.9 (8.0)21.0 (6.3)
    Soy products (grams/d)0.2 (0.5)0.3 (0.7)0.2 (0.5)0.4 (0.9)
    Fruits (grams/d)158.4 (113.0)163.0 (114.0)168.4 (138.7)157.7 (86.3)
    Vegetables (grams/d)133.6 (77.2)137.6 (76.1)135.7 (84.4)137.1 (69.5)
    Coffee (grams/d)345.2 (312.5)312.7 (256.5)333.6 (283.4)354.5 (337.3)
    Black/green tea (grams/d)151.8 (276.5)205.4 (325.9)161.6 (280.3)214.1 (335.8)
    Herbal tea (grams/d)0.2 (0.5)0.3 (0.7)0.2 (0.5)0.4 (0.9)
  • *n = 13 women had missing values for HEP use, numbers do not always add up to total numbers due to missing values for covariates.

  • Family history of breast cancer in 1st degree relative (mother, daughter, sister).

  • Benign breast disease with or without biopsy.