Table 4.

ORs and 95% CIs for risk of lung cancer among women across tertiles of plasma tocopherols, carotenoids, and retinol, serum selenium, and urinary 15-isoprostane F2t

VariableTertiles of concentration levels
Ptrend*
123
Plasma micronutrients (ng/mL)
α-Tocopherol (μg/mL)
    Median level9,34613,67822,756
    No. of cases/no. of controls25/4021/4519/45
    Base model OR1.000.75 (0.33-1.70)0.76 (0.33-1.75)0.58
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.74 (0.31-1.76)0.79 (0.32-1.94)0.70
β + γ-tocopherol
    Median level6401,5203,261
    No. of cases/no. of controls20/4523/4322/42
    Base model OR1.000.93 (0.38-2.27)0.98 (0.40-2.40)0.99
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.93 (0.37-2.39)0.88 (0.35-2.24)0.80
Total tocopherols
    Median level12,40016,11324,161
    No. of cases/no. of controls25/4021/4519/45
    Base model OR1.001.30 (0.57-2.95)0.83 (0.36-1.89)0.54
    Fully adjusted OR§1.001.32 (0.56-3.11)0.88 (0.37-2.12)0.66
β-Cryptoxanthin
    Median level82177413
    No. of cases/no. of controls22/4221/4622/42
    Base model OR1.000.94 (0.39-2.26)1.32 (0.54-3.26)0.50
    Fully adjusted OR§1.001.02 (0.41-2.55)1.58 (0.59-4.23)0.32
α-Carotene
    Median level2248109
    No. of cases/no. of controls24/4116/4925/40
    Base model OR1.000.64 (0.24-1.74)2.01 (0.77-5.26)0.11
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.59 (0.20-1.73)1.52 (0.53-4.38)0.29
β-Carotene
    Median level100214508
    No. of cases/no. of controls22/4320/4623/41
    Base model OR1.001.02 (0.45-2.31)1.55 (0.62-3.90)0.30
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.99 (0.41-2.39)1.33 (0.49-3.61)0.53
Lutein + zeaxanthin
    Median level236376563
    No. of cases/no. of controls22/4318/4725/40
    Base model OR1.001.12 (0.46-2.73)1.94 (0.76-4.94)0.15
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.89 (0.35-2.26)2.23 (0.79-6.26)0.11
Lycopene
    Median level144263401
    No. of cases/no. of controls22/4320/4523/42
    Base model OR1.000.98 (0.41-2.32)1.72 (0.69-4.27)0.23
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.84 (0.33-2.13)1.94 (0.72-5.22)0.15
Total carotenoids
    Median level8181,3082,091
    No. of cases/no. of controls22/4321/4522/42
    Base model OR1.001.11 (0.47-2.63)1.75 (0.68-4.52)0.23
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.96 (0.38-2.42)1.78 (0.62-5.08)0.25
Retinol
    Median level7771,1071,712
    No. of cases/no. of controls23/4223/4319/45
    Base model OR1.000.69 (0.28-1.69)0.63 (0.25-1.61)0.36
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.78 (0.30-2.01)0.77 (0.29-2.06)0.63
Serum selenium (μg/g of sodium)
    Median level0.120.130.15
    No. of cases/no. of controls24/4621/5126/45
    Base model OR1.000.67 (0.29-1.58)1.00 (0.45-2.25)0.89
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.64 (0.26-1.60)0.98 (0.42-2.29)0.91
Urinary 15-isoprostane F2t (ng/mg of creatinine)
    Median level3.754.967.51
    No. of cases/no. of controls15/4219/4119/38
    Base model OR1.001.29 (0.47-3.53)0.98 (0.35-2.76)0.87
    Fully adjusted OR§1.001.29 (0.46-3.61)1.19 (0.40-3.49)0.82
  • * Linear dose-response in the logit of risk was tested by a Wald test for each biomarker modeled as a trend variable assigned the median value of the appropriate category.

  • Two controls were matched to each case on geographic area, female sex, ethnicity, year of birth, date and time of specimen collection, fasting status, and smoking status (never, former, current). Cases with missing covariate data were excluded from the analyses (n = 6 for tocopherols, carotenoids, and retinol; n = 18 for 15-isoprostane F2t).

  • Adjusted by conditional logistic regression with matched sets as strata for age at specimen collection, fasting hours before blood draw, pack-years, and pack-years squared.

  • § Further adjusted for years of schooling and family history of lung cancer.