Table 3.

ORs and 95% CIs for risk of lung cancer among men across tertiles of plasma tocopherols, carotenoids, and retinol, serum selenium, and urinary 15-isoprostane F2t

VariableTertiles of concentration levels
Ptrend*
123
Plasma micronutrients (ng/mL)
α-Tocopherol
    Median level9,13513,24920,212
    No. of cases/no. of controls45/7229/8742/75
    Base model OR1.000.54 (0.28-1.02)1.00 (0.54-1.85)0.72
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.57 (0.30-1.08)1.00 (0.54-1.87)0.76
β + γ-Tocopherol
    Median level5601,4822,972
    No. of cases/no. of controls41/7532/8543/74
    Base model OR1.000.75 (0.39-1.45)0.98 (0.52-1.84)0.98
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.77 (0.39-1.51)0.96 (0.50-1.83)0.96
Total tocopherols
    Median level11,36815,71522,012
    No. of cases/no. of controls40/7734/8342/74
    Base model OR1.000.89 (0.48-1.65)1.21 (0.65-2.26)0.51
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.95 (0.51-1.77)1.18 (0.63-2.22)0.59
β-Cryptoxanthin
    Median level82162353
    No. of cases/no. of controls51/6635/8230/86
    Base model OR1.000.56 (0.30-1.03)0.32 (0.15-0.70)0.005
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.58 (0.31-1.08)0.33 (0.15-0.73)0.007
α-Carotene
    Median level2445100
    No. of cases/no. of controls56/6035/8325/91
    Base model OR1.000.36 (0.18-0.70)0.22 (0.10-0.47)0.0006
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.38 (0.19-0.74)0.24 (0.11-0.53)0.002
β-Carotene
    Median level87202497
    No. of cases/no. of controls55/6134/8427/89
    Base model OR1.000.41 (0.22-0.79)0.28 (0.13-0.57)0.002
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.46 (0.24-0.90)0.30 (0.15-0.64)0.004
Lutein + zeaxanthin
    Median level250393623
    No. of cases/no. of controls48/6937/8031/85
    Base model OR1.000.70 (0.37-1.30)0.42 (0.20-0.87)0.02
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.68 (0.36-1.28)0.45 (0.21-0.94)0.04
Lycopene
    Median level164296463
    No. of cases/no. of controls46/7043/7527/89
    Base model OR1.000.88 (0.47-1.63)0.35 (0.17-0.71)0.004
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.93 (0.50-1.74)0.36 (0.18-0.75)0.007
Total carotenoids
    Median level9081,3772,030
    No. of cases/no. of controls52/6536/8028/89
    Base model OR1.000.45 (0.25-0.84)0.32 (0.15-0.65)0.002
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.48 (0.26-0.89)0.32 (0.15-0.68)0.003
Retinol
    Median level8901,2021,804
    No. of cases/no. of controls36/8140/7740/76
    Base model OR1.001.06 (0.54-2.07)1.08 (0.50-2.34)0.85
    Fully adjusted OR§1.001.22 (0.62-2.40)1.26 (0.57-2.77)0.61
Serum selenium (μg/grams of sodium)
    Median level0.120.130.15
    No. of cases/no. of controls49/8544/9140/94
    Base model OR1.000.77 (0.42-1.40)0.73 (0.39-1.36)0.34
    Fully adjusted OR§1.000.74 (0.40-1.38)0.70 (0.37-1.33)0.30
Urinary 15-isoprostane F2t (ng/mg of creatinine)
    Median level2.833.925.89
    No. of cases/no. of controls18/7631/6236/58
    Base model OR1.002.52 (1.12-5.66)2.30 (1.06-4.99)0.09
    Fully adjusted OR§
1.002.31 (1.02-5.25)2.16 (0.98-4.78)0.12
  • * Linear dose-response in the logit of risk was tested by a Wald test for each biomarker modeled as a trend variable assigned the median value of the appropriate category.

  • Two controls were matched to each case on geographic area, male sex, ethnicity, year of birth, date and time of specimen collection, fasting status, and smoking status (never, former, current). Cases with missing covariate data were excluded from the analyses (n = 3 for selenium, n = 20 for other antioxidants, n = 51 for 15-isoprostane F2t).

  • Adjusted by conditional logistic regression with matched sets as strata for age at specimen collection, fasting hours before blood draw, pack-years, and pack-years squared.

  • § Further adjusted for years of schooling and family history of lung cancer.