Table 3.

HR (95% CI) of liver cancer according to coffee consumption

TotalCoffee consumption
Almost never
<1 cup/d
1-2 cups/d
≥3 cups/d
Ptrend
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
All subjects
    No. subjects18,8156,3245,7525,0931,646
    Person-years238,51780,37873,15564,33120,654
    No. cases1105135186
    Sex, age, and area adjusted1.00 (Reference)0.77 (0.50-1.18)0.50 (0.29-0.88)0.54 (0.23-1.27)0.019
    Multivariate adjusted*1.00 (Reference)0.67 (0.42-1.07)0.49 (0.27-0.91)0.54 (0.21-1.39)0.025
        Men1.00 (Reference)0.79 (0.46-1.37)0.37 (0.17-0.81)0.32 (0.10-1.10)0.006
        Women1.00 (Reference)0.39 (0.15-1.03)0.92 (0.36-2.38)0.69 (0.11-4.22)0.615
HCV and/or HBsAg positive
    No. subjects1,499525475368131
    Person-years18,0506,3275,7254,4151,584
    No. cases924328156
    Sex, age, and area adjusted1.00 (Reference)0.66 (0.41-1.07)0.51 (0.28-0.95)0.50 (0.21-1.22)0.026
    Multivariate adjusted*1.00 (Reference)0.55 (0.33-0.93)0.47 (0.24-0.93)0.61 (0.23-1.62)0.036
        Men1.00 (Reference)0.67 (0.37-1.22)0.36 (0.15-0.84)0.40 (0.12-1.38)0.017
        Women1.00 (Reference)0.23 (0.06-0.93)1.43 (0.45-4.50)0.94 (0.11-7.92)0.833
HCV positive
    No. subjects1,05838833026080
    Person-years12,4744,5953,9083,043928
    No. cases803824126
    Sex, age, and area adjusted1.00 (Reference)0.70 (0.42-1.19)0.40 (0.20-0.82)0.62 (0.25-1.53)0.028
    Multivariate adjusted*1.00 (Reference)0.56 (0.32-0.99)0.40 (0.18-0.88)0.78 (0.28-2.15)0.065
        Men1.00 (Reference)0.67 (0.34-1.31)0.31 (0.12-0.81)0.53 (0.14-1.92)0.032
        Women1.00 (Reference)0.39 (0.10-1.61)0.72 (0.17-3.11)2.54 (0.22-29.37)0.964
  • * Model includes sex (stratified; men and women combined only), age (stratified; 5-year age categories), area (stratified; six public health center areas), smoking status (never, past, current), weekly ethanol intake (past, less than weekly, <150 g/wk, ≥150 g/wk), body mass index (<25, 25 to <27, ≥27), history of diabetes mellitus (yes, no), coffee consumption (never, <1, 1-2, ≥3 cups/d), green tea consumption (<3, 3-4, ≥5 cups/d), serum ALT level (IU/L; continuous), HCV infection status (anti-HCV antibody negative, positive; not included in analysis restricted to HCV-positive subjects), and HBV infection status (HbsAg negative, positive).