Table 2.

Risk of all-cancer mortality overall and by age, sex, and race or ethnicity, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File 1988-2000

Quintiles of serum folate concentration (ng/mL)
P*
<3.03.0-<4.34.3-<6.16.1-<9.4≥9.4
Overall
No. of cases6299858671
HR adjusted for age, sex, and race only (95% CI)1.01.44 (0.97-2.14)0.82 (0.55-1.22)1.09 (0.76-1.55)0.63 (0.45-0.88)<0.01
Fully-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.01.61 (1.11-2.32)1.00 (0.65-1.49)1.39 (0.96-2.03)0.85 (0.59-1.22)0.02
By race or ethnicity
Non-Hispanic whites
No. of cases2050336050
HR adjusted for age and sex only (95% CI)1.01.71 (1.05-2.79)0.77 (0.46-1.31)1.18 (0.77-1.82)0.65 (0.44-0.96)0.01
Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)1.01.91 (1.20-3.03)0.92 (0.54-1.57)1.51 (0.96-2.38)0.87 (0.58-1.32)<0.01
Non-Hispanic blacks
No. of cases2630291712
HR adjusted for age and sex only (95% CI)1.00.85 (0.46-1.58)1.10 (0.55-2.21)0.81 (0.41-1.58)0.72 (0.34-1.52)0.76
Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00.99 (0.53-1.82)1.30 (0.68-2.45)0.99 (0.49-1.99)0.94 (0.39-2.27)0.32
Hispanic Americans
No. of cases16192278
HR adjusted for age and sex only (95% CI)1.00.68 (0.25-1.85)0.98 (0.39-2.44)0.38 (0.09-1.53)0.55 (0.16-1.87)0.39
Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00.80 (0.28-2.29)1.16 (0.44-3.08)0.49 (0.12-2.06)0.81 (0.21-3.08)0.61
By folic acid supplement use
Nonusers
No. of cases5988756629
HR adjusted for age, sex, and race only (95% CI)1.01.35 (0.88-2.06)0.83 (0.53-1.29)0.93 (0.61-1.42)0.77 (0.53-1.13)0.07
Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)1.01.51 (1.01-2.27)1.01 (0.64-1.60)1.23 (0.78-1.96)0.97 (0.59-1.58)0.23
Users
No. of cases311102042
HR adjusted for age, sex, and race only (95% CI)1.05.42 (1.09-27.0)1.32 (0.39-4.45)3.90 (0.85-17.9)1.36 (0.30-6.13)<0.01
Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)1.05.76 (1.09-30.6)1.50 (0.45-5.02)4.18 (0.94-18.6)1.53 (0.34-6.83)<0.01
  • * P for trend across quintiles of serum folate concentrations based on adjusted Satterthwaite F-test; all tests two-tailed.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, race or ethnicity, smoking status, alcohol intake, BMI, education, NSAID use, physical activity, HEI, and total energy intake. P values for age by race or ethnicity interaction were 0.50 and 0.59 for age-, sex-, race/ethnicity- and multivariate-adjusted models, respectively, based on adjusted Satterthwaite F-test.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol intake, BMI, education, NSAID use, physical activity, HEI, and total energy intake.