Table 3.

Associations of lung cancer risk with use of various herbal and specialty supplements during the previous 10 y, the VITAL Study (n = 77,125)

Herbal or specialty supplement*Lung cancer cases (n = 665), n (%)Non–lung cancer cases (n = 76,460), n (%)Adjusted HR (adjusted 95% CI)
Fish oil
    No use608 (91)68,760 (90)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y57 (9)7,453 (10)1.09 (0.83-1.44)
    User vs non-user P0.52
Garlic pills
    No use582 (88)67,204 (88)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y80 (12)8,950 (12)1.05 (0.83-1.34)
    User vs non-user P0.66
Gingko biloba
    No use584 (88)65,753 (86)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y80 (12)10,411 (14)1.04 (0.82-1.32)
    User vs non-user P0.76
Ginseng
    No use620 (94)69,888 (92)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y43 (6)6,322 (8)0.97 (0.70-1.33)
    User vs non-user P0.93
Grapeseed
    No use631 (95)70,512 (92)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y33 (5)5,786 (8)0.97 (0.68-1.38)
    User vs non-user P0.86
Glucosamine
    No use576 (87)60,733 (80)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y88 (13)15,458 (20)0.74 (0.58-0.94)
    User vs non-user P0.01
Chondroitin
    No use609 (92)65,789 (86)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y55 (8)10,368 (14)0.72 (0.54-0.96)
    User vs non-user P0.02
Melatonin
    No use638 (96)72,449 (95)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y26 (4)3,799 (5)0.99 (0.66-1.47)
    User vs non-user P0.95
MSM
    No use636 (96)72,640 (95)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y29 (4)3,675 (5)1.00 (0.68-1.47)
    User vs non-user P0.99
St. John's wort
    No use638 (96)72,375 (95)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y24 (4)3,868 (5)0.98 (0.65-1.48)
    User vs non-user P0.94
Saw palmetto§
    No use335 (90)32,564 (89)1.00 (Reference)
    Any pills per day during the previous 10 y34 (10)4,043 (11)0.84 (0.59-1.21)
    User vs non-user P0.36
  • NOTE: Only herbal or specialty supplements for which at least 5% of either cases or noncases were users are included. Numbers may not sum to the total and percentages may not add up to 100% because of missing data and/or rounding.

  • * Based on self-reported intakes from the individual supplements, mixtures, and multivitamins, when relevant.

  • Adjusted for age, gender, education, years smoked, pack-years, and pack-years squared.

  • Adjusted for age, gender, education, years smoked, pack-years, pack-years squared, NSAID use, history of arthritis, and multivitamin use. Also, glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM were adjusted for each of the other two supplements.

  • § Saw palmetto was asked of men only.