Table 1.

Participant characteristics of lung cancer cases and non–lung cancer cases, the VITAL Study (n = 77,125)

CharacteristicLung cancer cases (n = 665)Controls* (n = 76,460)
Age at baseline (y), n (%)
    50-59116 (17)35,269 (46)
    60-69274 (41)26,481 (35)
    ≥70275 (41)14,710 (19)
        Mean ± SD67.2 (6.6)61.9 (7.4)
Gender, n (%)
    Female296 (45)39,777 (52)
    Male369 (55)36,683 (48)
Race, n (%)
    Non-White37 (6)5,138 (7)
    White609 (94)70,009 (93)
Education, n (%)
    ≤High school education237 (37)15,022 (20)
    Some college259 (40)28,776 (38)
    College graduate/advanced degree152 (23)31,369 (42)
Smoking status, n (%)
    Never52 (8)36,389 (48)
    Former, quit ≥10 y275 (42)28,091 (37)
    Former, quit <10 y128 (19)4,906 (6)
    Current203 (31)6,220 (8)
        Pack-years of cigarettes (mean ± SD)43.4 (27.7)13.3 (21.0)
No. years as a smoker, n (%)
    Nonsmokers (0-0)52 (8)36,389 (48)
    Lower half of smokers (2.5-24.5)50 (8)17,827 (24)
    Upper half of smokers (25-59)556 (84)21,482 (28)
    Mean (SD)33.8 (13.9)11.8 (14.9)
Physical activity (MET-h/wk)
    No exercise157 (24)11,245 (15)
    1st Quartile (0.01-3.03)145 (22)16,034 (21)
    2nd Quartile (3.04-8.06)148 (23)15,998 (21)
    3rd Quartile (8.07-17.81)107 (16)16,057 (21)
    4th Quartile (>17.81)92 (14)16,073 (21)
BMI category (kg/m2)
    Underweight (<18.5)16 (3)652 (1)
    Normal (18.5-24.9)230 (37)24,334 (33)
    Overweight (25-29.9)262 (42)29,796 (41)
    Obese (≥30)120 (19)17,902 (25)
Vegetables (servings/d)
    1st Quartile (0-1.33)171 (30)17,242 (25)
    2nd Quartile (1.34-1.97)151 (26)17,231 (25)
    3rd Quartile (1.98-2.88)139 (24)17,315 (25)
    4th Quartile (>2.88)110 (19)17,296 (25)
Fruit (servings/d)
    1st Quartile (0-0.75)200 (35)17,206 (25)
    2nd Quartile (0.76-1.34)132 (23)17,274 (25)
    3rd Quartile (1.35- 2.31)133 (23)17,281 (25)
    4th Quartile (>2.31)104 (18)17,313 (25)
NSAID use (4+ times/wk, 4+ y), n (%)
    No430 (66)55,070 (74)
    Yes222 (34)19,772 (26)
Current use a multivitamin, n (%)
    No291 (44)32,245 (42)
    Yes374 (56)44,205 (58)
Medical history, n (%)
    Prior cancer
        No461 (70)61,188 (80)
        Yes202 (30)15,272 (20)
    COPD or emphysema
        No549 (83)73,809 (97)
        Yes114 (17)2,633 (3)
    Arthritis
        No452 (68)53,739 (70)
        Yes211 (32)22,703 (30)
Family history of lung cancer, n (%)
        No526 (80)65,962 (87)
        Yes131 (20)9,495 (13)
  • NOTE: All characteristics had <5% missing data and percentages are of the total. Numbers may not sum to the total and percentages may not add up to 100% because of missing data and/or rounding.

  • * Controls refer to the non–lung cancer cases.

  • Multivitamin users who responded “sometimes” were included in the “yes” category.

  • Family history of colorectal cancer was defined as one or more first-degree relative with lung cancer.