Table 2.

Studies selected for analysis comparing bladder cancer risk between nonsmokers with and without SHS exposure

Author (y)Country study typenTotal number cases for cohortsMean baseline age (SE) or age rangeMean years of follow-up timeSHS measureTiming of SHS measureResults: RR or OR (95% CI)Adjusted for:
Alberg (2006; ref. 24)United StatesCohort 1: 218,362 pyCohort 1: 3425+15Never vs currentAdulthoodRR for cohort 1 (both genders): 1.5 (0.8-3.00)Age
Prospective cohort studyCohort 2: 296,246 pyCohort 2: 48AdulthoodRR for cohort 2 (both genders): 0.8 (0.4-1.8)
AdulthoodRR for cohort 1 (females): 2.2 (0.9-5.2)
AdulthoodRR for cohort 2 (females): 1.0 (0.4-2.7)
Bjerregaard (EPIC; 2006; ref. 6)Europe220,790Adulthood: 4759 (45-73)N/AExposed vs not exposedAdulthoodRR (both genders): 0.82 (0.46-1.48)Intake of fruit and vegetables, exposure to SHS in childhood or adulthood
Prospective cohort studyChildhood: 47ChildhoodRR (both genders): 2.02 (0.94-4.35)
Chen (2005; ref. 25)Taiwan41 cases50+Exposed vs not exposedAdulthoodOR males: 7.16 (1.87-27.40)Age, BMI, cumulative arsenic, hair dye usage, and education
Case-control study202 controlsAdulthoodOR females: 1.09 (0.42-2.80)
Jiang (2007; ref. 18)United States147 cases25-64Exposed vs not exposedChildhoodOR males: 0.75 (P > 0.05)Age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of education
Case-control study292 controlsChildhoodOR females: 1.64 (P > 0.05)
AdulthoodOR males: 0.73 (P > 0.05)
AdulthoodOR females: 1.33 (P > 0.05)
Samanic (2006; ref. 8)Spain1,219 cases21-80Exposed vs not exposedChildhoodOR males <18 y exposure: 1.2 (0.6-2.3)Age, hospital region, fruit/vegetable consumption, and high-risk occupation
Case-control study1,271 controlsChildhoodOR males 18 y exposure: 0.9 (0.3-2.6)
ChildhoodOR females <18 y exposure: 0.7 (0.3-1.4)
ChildhoodOR females 18 y exposure: 0.6 (0.2-1.7)
AdulthoodOR males 0-26 y exposure: 1.1 (0.5-2.4)
AdulthoodOR males 17-54 y exposure: 0.8 (0.3-2.2)
AdulthoodOR males >54 y exposure: 1.3 (0.5-3.2)
AdulthoodOR females 0-26 y exposure: 2.2 (0.8-6.2)
AdulthoodOR females 17-54 y exposure: 1.9 (0.7-4.8)
AdulthoodOR females >54 y exposure: 0.8 (0.3-1.9)
Kabat (1986; ref. 26)United States40 casesAdults (not specified)Exposed vs not exposedAdulthoodNo OR reportedNA
Case-control study72 controls
Zeegers (2002; ref. 27)the Netherlands7,276 pyAdulthood: 4855-697Exposed vs not exposedAdulthoodRR partner ex-smoker (both genders): 0.95 (0.46-2.0)Age and sex
Prospective cohort studyChildhood: 52AdulthoodRR partner current smoker (both genders): 0.74 (0.29-1.9)
ChildhoodRR parents smoking (both genders): 1.2 (0.56-2.4)
Burch (1989; ref. 28)Canada61 cases35-79Exposed vs not exposedAdulthoodOR males: 0.94 (0.45-1.95)Age and study location
Case-control study112 controlsAdulthoodOR females: 0.75 (0.33-1.71)
  • Abbreviations: EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; OR, odds ratio; py, person-years; BMI, body mass index.