Table 1.

Case-control studies selected for analysis comparing 4-ABP levels between nonsmokers with and without SHS exposure

Author (y)CountrynMean baseline age (SE) or age rangeTiming of SHS exposureUnits of 4-ABPMeasurement technique and CVSHS measureResults: mean (SE)Adjusted for:
Bartsch (1990; ref. 17)Italy35 unexposed45-64Adulthoodpg/g Hb adducts (blood)Drabkin assayExposed vs not exposedSlow acetylation phenotype unexposed: 30.4 (4.7)None listed; only men included in the study
15 exposedGC MSFast acetylation phenotype unexposed: 12.3 (2.4)
CV = 10%Slow acetylation phenotype exposed: 34.8 (6.4)
Fast acetylation phenotype exposed: 33.6 (8.6)
Grimmer (1999; ref. 22)Germany14 unexposedN/AAdulthoodng/24h (urine)Exposed vs not exposedUnexposed: 68.1 (91.5)None listed; both genders combined
22 exposedExposed: 49.6 (6.07)
Hammond (1993; ref. 16)United States7 unexposedN/AAdulthoodpg/g Hb adducts (blood)Drabkin assayExposed vs not exposed<0.5 μg/m3 weekly average nicotine concentration: 17.6 (2.4)Only women included in the study
29 exposedGC MS0.5-1.9 μg/m3 weekly average nicotine concentration: 20.8 (2.0)
CV = 10%≥2.0 μg/m3 weekly average nicotine concentration: 27.8 (1.4)
Jiang (2007; ref. 18)United States203 unexposed25-64Adulthoodpg/g Hb adducts (blood)Drabkin assayExposed vs not exposedUnexposed: 19.3 (2.14)Age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of education
27 exposedGC MSExposed: 22.87 (1.6)
CV < 1%
Maclure (1989; ref. 19)United States29 unexposedN/AAdulthoodpg/g Hb adducts (blood)Drabkin assayExposed vs not exposedUnexposed: 45.86 (19.34)None listed
28 exposedGC MSExposed: 47.46 (24.61)
CV = 9%
Richter (2001; ref. 20)Munich (D)15 unexposed9.3 (2.3)Childhoodpg/g Hb adducts (blood)Drabkin assayExposed vs not exposedUnexposed: 30.1 (7.0)None listed
Augsburg (D)18 exposed6.3 (0.3)Childhoodpg/g Hb adducts (blood)GC MSExposed vs not exposedExposed: 31.2 (5.5)None listed
Eichstatt (D)65 unexposed8.2 (3.6)Childhoodpg/g Hb adducts (blood)CV = NAExposed vs not exposedUnexposed: 25.0 (14.8)None listed
58 exposedExposed: 28.5 (20.0)
39 unexposedUnexposed: 19.0 (7.9)
25 exposedExposed: 23.4 (15.9)
Tang (1999; ref. 21)United States10 unexposed1-6Childhoodpg/g Hb adducts (blood)Drabkin assayExposed vs not exposedUnexposed: 23.8 (9.22)Ethnicity
41 exposedGC MSExposed: 34.3 (16.99)
CV = 4%
  • Abbreviations: CV, coefficient of variation; GC MS, capillary gas chromatography with detection by negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.