Table 4.

Risk of rhabdomyosarcoma and mothers' diagnostic X-ray examinations during pregnancy by trimester and site of exposure

Trimester of X-raySite of X-ray examination*
Cases (%) / controls (%)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Adjusted OR (95% CI)§
Abdomen / pelvisOther truncalAll truncalOther**Any
First4 (1.3) / 2 (0.6)2 (0.6) / 0 (0.0)5 (1.6) / 2 (0.6)8 (2.6) / 0 (0.0)12 (3.9) / 2 (0.6)
2.0 (0.4-11.0)n.a.2.5 (0.5-13.0)n.a.6.2 (1.4-27.8)
1.4 (0.2-8.7)n.a.1.9 (0.3-10.7)n.a.5.7 (1.2-27.8)
Second4 (1.3) / 4 (1.3)1 (0.3) / 1 (0.3)5 (1.6) / 4 (1.3)6 (1.9) / 5 (1.6)9 (2.9) / 8 (2.6)
1.0 (0.2-4.0)1.0 (0.1-16.0)1.2 (0.3-4.7)1.2 (0.4-4.0)1.1 (0.4-2.9)
0.8 (0.2-3.5)n.a.0.8 (0.2-3.5)0.8 (0.2-3.1)0.9 (0.3-2.4)
Third16 (5.1) / 9 (2.9)1 (0.3) / 1 (0.3)17 (5.5) / 10 (3.2)4 (1.3) / 1 (0.3)21 (6.8) / 11 (3.5)
1.8 (0.8-4.1)1.0 (0.1-16.0)1.7 (0.8-3.8)4.0 (0.4-36.1)2.0 (0.9-4.1)
1.8 (0.7-4.6)1.2 (0.1-20.4)1.7 (0.7-4.2)4.8 (0.5-45.6)2.0 (0.9-4.6)
Any24 (7.7) / 15 (4.8)5 (1.6) / 2 (0.6)††28 (9.0) / 16 (5.2)18 (5.8) / 6 (1.9)42 (13.5) / 21 (6.8)
1.6 (0.8-3.2)2.5 (0.5-13.0)1.8 (0.96-3.4)3.1 (1.2-7.9)2.1 (1.2-3.7)
1.4 (0.7-2.9)2.2 (0.4-12.4)1.5 (0.8-3.1)2.9 (1.1-7.7)1.9 (1.1-3.4)
  • * Includes multiple X-ray exposure.

  • Percentage of respondents to each question (excluding unknowns).

  • ORs (95% confidence limits) unadjusted.

  • § ORs (95% confidence limits) adjusted for matching factors (age, sex and race) and the length of the pregnancy, the type of delivery and the presence of spotting, cramping or abnormal vaginal bleeding during pregnancy.

  • Includes sites: pelvis, pelvimetry, uterus, uterus NOS, abdomen, stomach, stomach NOS, upper gastrointestines, IVP.

  • Includes sites: back, chest.

  • ** Includes sites: dental, sinus, neck, lower extremity.

  • †† Includes one case for whom the site of X-ray was chest, trimester unknown.