Table 2.

Odds ratio of prostate cancer according to quintile of serum retinol and stage of disease progression at diagnosis

Serum Retinol
P trend
Q1*
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)CasesOR (95% CI)
All Cases1551.001540.97(0.71-1.34)1240.77 (0.55-1.07)1300.79 (0.57-1.10)1290.80 (0.57-1.11)0.11
Nonaggressive§941.00961.22 (0.84-1.79)710.86 (0.58-1.29)790.95 (0.64-1.41)830.97 (0.66-1.43)0.53
Aggressive681.00570.69 (0.44-1.07)520.64 (0.40-1.00)490.57 (0.36-0.91)430.58 (0.36-0.92)0.02
Stage III and IV181.00200.87 (0.42-1.79)190.83 (0.40-1.73)190.74 (0.35-1.56)140.69 (0.32-1.51)0.33
Gleason sum ≥7661.00480.58 (0.37-0.92)420.50 (0.31-0.82)390.45 (0.27-0.73)390.52 (0.32-0.84)0.01
  • Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • * Reference category.

  • Adjusted for age, time since initial screening, year of blood draw, and study center.

  • Numbers of nonaggressive and aggressive do not add up to All Cases due to missing information on stage or grade.

  • § Aggressive defined as Gleason Sum ≥7 or stage III or IV.