Table 1.

Description of baseline characteristics overall and according to quintiles of serum retinol

CharacteristicQuintile of serum retinol
Overall
12345
Controls (n)168169168169168842
Quintile range (ug/dL)27.4-54.754.8-64.364.4-72.872.9-85.385.4-262.627.4-262.6
Mean age at study entry in y (SD)65.1 (0.4)64.6 (0.4)64.5 (0.4)64.6 (0.4)64.8 (0.4)64.7 (0.2)
Average no. of screens/y *0.960.960.970.950.970.96
Family history of prostate cancer (%)5.63.45.74.56.35.3
History of diabetes (%)11.210.66.98.25.88.3
Cholesterol, mmol/L (SD)5.4 (0.1)5.7 (0.1)5.7 (0.1)6.2 (0.1)7.8 (0.1)6.1 (0.1)
Mean current BMI, kg/m2 (SD)27.8 (0.3)27.9 (0.3)27.3 (0.3)26.9 (0.3)26.9 (0.3)27.3 (0.1)
Smoking history (%)
    Never34.325.027.127.830.730.0
    Current8.89.39.78.99.49.1
    Former46.752.846.156.951.651.5
    Pipe/Cigar8.711.615.94.96.89.4
Mean physical activity, h/wk (SD)2.7 (0.1)2.8 (0.1)2.8 (0.1)3.2 (0.1)3.1 (0.1)2.9 (0.1)
Aspirin use, ≥1 times/wk %42.646.444.952.053.747.6
Mean intake (SD)
    Energy, kcal/d2,361 (73)2,333 (72)2,439 (73)2,284 (73)2,350 (72)2,347 (32)
    Total fat, g/d82.0 (1.3)81.7 (1.3)79.4 (1.4)77.2 (1.3)78.0 (1.3)79.2 (1.4)
    Fruit, servings/2,000 kcal/d3.2 (0.2)3.4 (0.2)3.5 (0.2)3.4 (0.2)3.5 (0.2)3.5 (0.1)
    Vegetables, servings/2,000 kcal/d5.5 (0.2)5.2 (0.2)5.5 (0.2)5.5 (0.2)5.4 (0.2)5.5 (0.1)
    Red meat, g/d114.8 (4.5)100.5 (4.5)101.4 (4.5)95.7 (4.5)96.0 (4.5)97.7 (2.6)
    PHIP, ng/d236 (43)228 (43)226 (43)243 (43)284 (43)220 (19)
    Calcium, mg/d1,125 (35)1,160 (35)1,132 (35)1,215 (35)1,184 (35)1,166 (21)
    Vitamin D, IU/d350 (25)428 (25)406 (25)448 (25)463 (25)420 (12)
    Supplement vitamin E use, % ever36.546.149.856.758.948.6
Alcohol (%)
    ≥0 and <3 g/d50.250.046.238.339.645.7
    ≥3 and <15 g/d22.128.223.219.618.021.5
    ≥15 g/d27.721.631.041.942.532.8
  • NOTE: All values other than age were directly standardized for age. Intakes of total fat, fruit, vegetables, red meat, PhIP, calcium, vitamin D, and supplement vitamin E were also standardized for energy intake.

    Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

  • * Average number of prostate cancer screening examinations (PSA or DRE) up to diagnosis of prostate cancer (cases) or selection as a control. Maximum period is limited to period of active screening (years 0-5).

  • Includes both single supplement and multivitamin use.