Table 3.

Relative risks of pancreatic cancer in relation to daily intake of available carbohydrate constituents

Nutrient intake (g/1,000 Kcal/d)Quintiles
P-trend*
12345
Starch
    Range0.55-39.239.2-46.046.0-51.851.8-59.0≥59.0
    Cases260257215214205
    RR (95% CI)1.001.04 (0.87-1.24)0.88 (0.73-1.07)0.93 (0.76-1.12)0.95 (0.78-1.16)0.32
Sucrose
    Range0.45-14.914.9-19.219.2-23.723.7-30.0≥30.0
    Cases231212217261230
    RR (95% CI)1.000.92 (0.76-1.12)0.93 (0.76-1.13)1.11 (0.93-1.34)0.95 (0.78-1.16)0.68
Lactose
    Range0-3.063.06-5.245.24-7.857.85-12.2≥12.2
    Cases226250226237212
    RR (95% CI)1.001.07 (0.89-1.28)0.97 (0.90-1.18)1.02 (0.84-1.23)0.89 (0.73-1.09)0.22
Maltose
    Range0-1.091.09-1.441.44-1.801.80-2.34≥2.34
    Cases254224212226235
    RR (95% CI)1.000.97 (0.81-1.17)0.93 (0.77-1.12)1.02 (0.85-1.23)1.07 (0.88-1.29)0.45
Free fructose
    Range0.10-7.297.29-10.210.2-13.413.4-18.4≥18.4
    Cases245221229233223
    RR (95% CI)1.001.01 (0.83-1.22)1.13 (0.94-1.37)1.22 (1.00-1.49)1.29 (1.04-1.59)0.004
Free glucose
    Range0.45-8.098.09-10.510.5-13.213.2-17.4≥17.4
    Cases245225257205219
    RR (95% CI)1.001.04 (0.86-1.25)1.32 (1.09-1.58)1.12 (0.91-1.37)1.35 (1.10-1.67)0.005
Galactose
    Range0-0.040.04-0.070.07-0.100.10-0.18≥0.18
    Cases274244230208195
    RR (95% CI)1.000.99 (0.83-1.18)0.96 (0.80-1.1)0.88 (0.75-1.07)0.91 (0.75-1.11)0.19
Total sugar
    Range2.16-42.042.0-52.452.4-62.562.5-75.8≥75.8
    Cases223246228250204
    RR (95% CI)1.001.14 (0.94-1.38)1.10 (0.90-1.34)1.23 (1.01-1.51)1.10 (0.88-1.38)0.28
  • NOTE: All Cox proportional hazard regression models were run using age as the underlying time metric.

  • * Linear trend was tested using the Wald test by treating the ordinal variables as the continuous variable.

  • Adjusted for age, total energy intake (log-transformed), energy-adjusted saturated fat and red meat intake, alcohol use (5-category drink level), smoking variables, and BMI (categorical). A smoking variable with finer categories was generated in order to account for its confounding effect: never smokers, quit ≥10 y and smoked <20 cigarette/d, quit ≥10 y and smoked ≥20 cigarette/d, quit 5-9 y and smoked <20 cigarette/d, quit 5-9 y and smoked ≥20 cigarette/d, quit 1-4 y and smoked <20 cigarette/d, quit 1-4 y and smoked ≥20 cigarette/d, current smokers with <20 cigarette/d, current smokers with ≥20 cigarette/d, and a missing category.