Table 2.

Relative risks of pancreatic cancer in relation to daily intake of glycemic index, carbohydrates, and glycemic load

Quintiles
P trend*
12345
Glycemic index
Range24.5-46.246.2-48.448.4-50.350.3-52.6≥52.6
Case/Person-year206/597,452235/603,984216/606,201222/608,882271/620,128
RR (95% CI)1.001.11 (0.92-1.34)1.00 (0.83-1.21)1.03 (0.85-1.24)1.26 (1.05-1.51)0.05
RR (95% CI)1.001.05 (0.87-1.27)0.96 (0.80-1.17)0.92 (0.76-1.12)1.09 (0.90-1.32)0.78
Total carbohydrate (g/1,000 kcal/d)
Range9.0-111.2111.2-125.1125.1-137.1137.1-151.5≥ 151.5
Case/Person-year278/583,260230/597,078215/607,582225/618,117203/630,611
RR (95% CI)1.000.81 (0.68-0.96)0.74 (0.62-0.89)0.77 (0.64-0.92)0.69 (0.57-0.83)0.001
RR (95% CI)1.000.92 (0.76-1.11)0.96 (0.78-1.20)1.10 (0.86-1.41)1.12 (0.84-1.50)0.26
Available carbohydrate (g/1,000 kcal/d)
Range8.7-101.9101.9-114.7114.7-125.7125.7-138.9≥138.9
Case/Person-year276/580,193232/595,488211/607,520229/619,984203/633,463
RR (95% CI)1.000.82 (0.69-0.98)0.73 (0.61-0.88)0.78 (0.66-0.94)0.70 (0.58-0.84)<0.001
RR (95% CI)1.000.94 (0.77-1.14)0.96 (0.77-1.18)1.11 (0.88-1.40)1.11 (0.84-1.46)0.25
Glycemic load (g/1,000 kcal/d)
Range4.0-54.554.5-61.661.6-67.767.7-74.9≥74.9
Case/Person-year277/581,799210/592,017226/608,058236/620,894202/633,879
RR (95% CI)1.000.75 (0.62-0.90)0.78 (0.66-0.94)0.80 (0.67-0.95)0.68 (0.57-0.82)<0.001
RR (95% CI)1.000.86 (0.71-1.05)1.03 (0.84-1.26)1.01 (0.81-1.26)0.95 (0.74-1.22)0.83
  • NOTE: All Cox proportional hazard regression models were run using age as the underlying time metric.

  • * Linear trend was tested using the Wald test by treating the ordinal variables as the continuous variable.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, and total energy intake (log-transformed).

  • Adjusted for age, sex, total energy intake (log-transformed), smoking variables, alcohol use (5-category drink level), energy-adjusted saturated fat and red meat intake, and BMI (categorical). A smoking variable with finer categories was generated in order to account for its confounding effect: never smokers, quit ≥10 y and smoked <20 cigarette/d, quit ≥10 y and smoked ≥20 cigarette/d, quit 5-9 y and smoked <20 cigarette/d, quit 5-9 y and smoked ≥20 cigarette/d, quit 1-4 y and smoked <20 cigarette/d, quit 1-4 y and smoked ≥20 cigarette/d, current smokers with <20 cigarette/d, current smokers with ≥20 cigarette/d, and a missing category.