Table 1.

Selected characteristics of participants according to quintiles (Q) of glycemic index and energy-adjusted glycemic load

Characteristics (mean or proportion)Glycemic index
Glycemic load
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Glycemic index48.752.053.955.858.952.353.453.854.255.6
Total carbohydrate, g/1,000kcal/d13613313012913099121133144162
Glycemic load, g/1,000kcal/d60.163.264.466.471.747.458.665.071.583.3
Age at entry of cohort (y)63636363636363636363
Race, %African American2.82.83.13.65.12.02.43.13.86.2
Education, % college or post college42.543.842.338.529.841.540.839.838.435.8
BMI, kg/m226.526.726.927.027.027.327.226.926.626.1
Physical activity, % active*53.951.848.544.639.242.846.448.150.250.5
Smoking history
    Never smokers, %36.637.236.835.031.624.433.237.340.641.7
    Former smokers, %48.549.549.249.147.753.050.448.747.045.0
    Current smokers, %10.69.610.412.417.118.612.610.48.99.5
    Missing4.33.63.63.53.64.03.93.63.53.7
Dietary and nutrient intake per day
    Total energy intake, kcal1,8081,7901,8101,8501,8962,0441,8641,7981,7371,713
    Total fat, g/1,000kcal29.432.233.835.236.138.237.234.231.126.0
    Saturated fat, g/1,000 kcal9.410.010.510.911.112.111.710.79.67.9
    Red meat, g/1,000 kcal26.131.234.637.639.746.539.733.628.021.3
    Alcohol, g20.812.911.710.47.838.910.86.74.52.8
    Folate intake, μg/1,000 kcal374347323296258272305326344352
    Fiber intake, g/1,000 kcal12.211.711.010.18.98.510.311.211.912.0
Available carbohydrate constituents (g/1,000 kcal/d)
    Starch42.648.250.351.653.740.847.750.753.154.1
    Sucrose22.422.422.623.726.415.320.323.426.432.0
    Fructose15.914.313.112.612.78.110.812.915.321.4
    Glucose14.413.412.612.213.78.410.712.414.519.7
    Total sugar68.061.358.057.158.641.052.459.667.182.8
  • * Active physical activity is defined as at least 20 min that caused increases in breathing or heart rate, or worked up a sweat for at least 3 times per week.

  • Dietary and nutrient variables adjusted for total energy intake using density methods.