Table 6.

RR of breast cancer and 95% CI for the highest, relative to lowest, tertile of soy intake during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood after adjustment for indicators of Asian lifestyle

Cultural/lifestyle variable added to modelRR* (95% CI) for high vs low soy intake in childhoodRR* (95% CI) for high vs low soy intake in adolescenceRR* (95% CI) for high vs low soy intake in adulthood
No variable added0.40 (0.2-0.8)0.80 (0.6-1.1)0.76 (0.6-1.0)
Family religion as an adolescent0.39 (0.2-0.8)0.83 (0.6-1.1)0.80 (0.6-1.1)
Language spoken at home during adolescence0.37 (0.2-0.8)0.90 (0.7-1.2)0.80 (0.6-1.1)
Studying Asian language or culture in school during adolescence0.42 (0.2-0.9)0.89 (0.6-1.2)0.80 (0.6-1.1)
Grocery store used as an adult0.40 (0.2-0.9)0.87 (0.6-1.2)0.81 (0.6-1.1)
Friends during adolescence0.39 (0.2-0.9)0.89 (0.7-1.2)0.79 (0.6-1.1)
Migration history0.40 (0.2-0.9)0.88 (0.6-1.2)0.83 (0.6-1.1)
  • * RR are adjusted for study design variables [age at diagnosis (20-39, 40-44, 45-49, ≥50 y), ethnicity (Chinese, Japanese, Filipino), and study center (Hawaii, Los Angeles, San Francisco-Oakland)] and parity/age at first live birth (nulliparous/never pregnant, 1-2 live births/age at first birth ≤20 y, ≥3 live births/age at first live birth ≤20 y, 1-2 live births/age at first live birth ≥21 y, ≥3 live births/age at first live birth ≥21 y, missing), menopausal status at diagnosis (premenopausal, postmenopausal, missing/other), age at menarche (<13 y, ≥13 y, missing/other), family history of breast cancer (yes, no), and personal history of benign breast disease (yes, no, missing).

  • Categories for migration history: subject born in the West/1-4 grandparents born in the West, subject born in the West/all 4 grandparents born in the East, subject born in the East/all 4 grandparents born in the East/subject lived in West ≥8 y, and subject born in the East/all 4 grandparents born in the East/subject lived in West <8 y.