Table 5.

RR of breast cancer and 95% CI by cultural and lifestyle practices in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood

Measure of acculturationChildhood (mother interviewed)
Adolescence (subject interviewed)
Adulthood (subject interviewed)
Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)Cases/controlsRR (95% CI)
Family religion*
    Western43/591.098/2321.0293/4341.0
    Eastern42/691.17 (0.5-2.5)368/5540.64 (0.5-0.9)238/4120.88 (0.6-1.2)
Language spoken at home
    English46/781.0202/3021.0300/4551.0
    Asian and English14/230.91 (0.4-2.2)83/1210.83 (0.6-1.2)82/1400.74 (0.5-1.1)
    Asian37/511.06 (0.5-2.4)306/5330.75 (0.6-1.0)211/3620.76 (0.6-1.0)
Language of newspapers read by adults in the home
    English44/831.0193/2891.0222/3271.0
    Asian/English equally22/281.43 (0.7-3.2)122/1671.11 (0.8-1.5)84/1540.82 (0.6-1.2)
    Asian24/411.34 (0.6-3.0)257/4760.87 (0.7-1.1)107/2330.71 (0.5-1.0)
Asian language/culture studied in school by children in family
    No37/641.0233/3311.0
    Yes58/880.92 (0.5-1.7)363/6350.73 (0.6-0.9)
Grocery store used
    Western32/561.0149/2231.0282/4001.0
    Western/Asian equally19/460.77 (0.3-1.7)111/1830.81 (0.6-1.1)187/3100.76 (0.6-1.0)
    Asian45/511.79 (0.8-3.8)333/5580.76 (0.6-1.0)128/2560.60 (0.4-0.8)
Friends
    Not Asian/Asian American14/191.060/611.063/731.0
    Both19/230.62 (0.2-1.8)107/1520.76 (0.5-1.2)205/3330.76 (0.5-1.1)
    Asian/Asian American64/1100.52 (0.2-1.3)430/7530.58 (0.4-0.9)329/5600.70 (0.5-1.0)
Neighborhood
    Not Asian/Asian American17/231.053/781.0124/1921.0
    Mixed19/400.88 (0.3-2.4)108/1661.10 (0.7-1.8)227/4261.05 (0.8-1.4)
    Asian/Asian American61/901.13 (0.5-2.8)435/7220.96 (0.6-1.4)196/3480.86 (0.6-1.2)
  • NOTE: RR are adjusted for study design variables [age at diagnosis (20-39, 40-44, 45-49, ≥50 y), ethnicity (Chinese, Japanese, Filipino), and study center (Hawaii, Los Angeles, San Francisco-Oakland)] and parity/age at first live birth (nulliparous/never pregnant, 1-2 live births/age at first birth ≤20 y, ≥3 live births/age at first live birth ≤20 y, 1-2 live births/age at first live birth ≥21 y, ≥3 live births/age at first live birth ≥21 y, missing), menopausal status at diagnosis (premenopausal, postmenopausal, missing/other), age at menarche (<13 y, ≥13 y, missing/other), family history of breast cancer (yes, no), and personal history of benign breast disease (yes, no, missing).

  • * Excludes subjects who reported that they did not practice any religion during specified period.

  • Asian refers to any Chinese, Japanese, or Filipino dialect.

  • For childhood and adolescence, refers to language of newspapers read by parents; for adulthood, refers to language of newspapers read by subject; excludes those who responded that they were not able to read in any language.