Table 4.

Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the association between HPV status and lesions in cumulative cross-sectional analysis

Definition of cervical lesionsSpecimen used to assess HPV infectionVisits included in analysis* (number to define same-type persistence)HPV infection statusNoncases/casesOR (95% CI)
Cytology results onlyCervical sample only6, 12, 18, 40, 46, 52, 58, and 64 (at least 2 visits)Negative199/31 (reference)
Transient or persistent LR-HPV22/618.8 (4.4-81.1)
Transient other HR-HPV44/912.9 (3.3-50.0)
Persistent other HR-HPV25/2352.9 (14.7-190.5)
Transient HPV 16/1813/1664.2 (16.3-253.0)
Persistent HPV 16/1815/36148.7 (40.7-542.8)
6, 12, 18, 40, 46, 52, 58, and 64 (at least 3 visits)Negative188/31 (reference)
Transient or persistent LR-HPV20/619.9 (4.6-86.3)
Transient other HR-HPV58/1717.6 (5.0-62.5)
Persistent other HR-HPV9/1587.8 (21.1-365.6)
Transient HPV 16/1822/3894.0 (26.6-332.1)
Persistent HPV 16/186/14139.6 (31.3-622.1)
Cervical and cervicovaginal self-sample0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 40, 46, 52, 58, and 64 (at least 2 visits)Negative194/21 (reference)
Transient or persistent LR-HPV26/626.2 (5.0-138.8)
Transient other HR-HPV41/24.4 (0.6-32.1)
Persistent other HR-HPV53/2744.6 (10.2-195.0)
Transient HPV 16/1830/1231.5 (6.6-149.2)
Persistent HPV 16/1823/45181.9 (41.1-806.0)
0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 40, 46, 52, 58, and 64 (at least 3 visits)Negative175/21 (reference)
Transient or persistent LR-HPV25/624.8 (4.7-131.6)
Transient other HR-HPV66/89.6 (2.0-46.7)
Persistent other HR-HPV27/2166.9 (14.6-306.5)
Transient HPV 16/1835/2759.8 (13.5-265.1)
Persistent HPV 16/1816/30155.3 (33.6-716.5)
Biopsy and cytology resultsCervical sample only6, 12, 18, 40, 46, 52, 58, and 64 (at least 2 visits)Negative201/21 (reference)
Transient or persistent LR-HPV23/523.0 (4.2-127.0)
Transient other HR-HPV47/611.9 (2.3-61.3)
Persistent other HR-HPV26/2476.6 (16.9-346.6)
Transient HPV 16/1815/1573.1 (15.0-355.9)
Persistent HPV 16/1818/33169.0 (37.2-768.6)
6, 12, 18, 40, 46, 52, 58, and 64 (at least 3 visits)Negative190/21 (reference)
Transient or persistent LR-HPV21/524.4 (4.4-135.6)
Transient other HR-HPV62/1419.9 (4.4-90.7)
Persistent other HR-HPV9/16133.2 (26.0-682.2)
Transient HPV 16/1826/35104.4 (23.5-463.3)
Persistent HPV 16/187/13169.1 (31.5-907.4)
Cervical and cervicovaginal self-sample0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 40, 46, 52, 58, and 64 (at least 2 visits)Negative195/11 (reference)
Transient or persistent LR-HPV27/543.6 (4.8-392.7)
Transient other HR-HPV42/14.2 (0.3-68.4)
Persistent other HR-HPV50/2679.2 (10.4-600.4)
Transient HPV 16/1832/1153.8 (6.7-434.8)
Persistent HPV 16/1828/42276.5 (36.3-2104.3)
0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 40, 46, 52, 58, and 64 (at least 3 visits)Negative176/11 (reference)
Transient or persistent LR-HPV26/541.2 (4.6-373.0)
Transient other HR-HPV69/613.4 (1.6-113.8)
Persistent other HR-HPV28/21127.7 (16.3-1002.8)
Transient HPV 16/1839/26103.4 (13.5-790.7)
Persistent HPV 16/1819/27230.6 (29.4-1811.1)
  • NOTE: Results by unconditional logistic regression; noncases: women without lesions throughout follow-up; cases: women who developed LSIL or HSIL during follow-up (cytology-based definition, upper half of the table) or women who developed biopsy-confirmed, any-grade CIN during follow-up (biopsy and cytology results, bottom half of the table).

    Abbreviation: OR, odds ratio.

  • * Visits (their programmed time points) considered to define cumulative HPV and lesion status. Screening visit not considered because women were cytologically negative, seronegative for HPV 16 and HPV 18 antibodies by ELISA, and HPV DNA negative by PCR for 14 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68). However, it is possible that women were infected at screening with a LR-HPV.

  • Age and race adjusted.

  • HPV status defined as positive if either the cervical sample or the cervicovaginal self-sample was positive. See text for details on definition of HPV infection categories.