Table 4.

The combined effect of HBV infection and AFB1 exposure and risk of HCC

HBsAgHCC/controlsOR (95% CI)Diagnosis with HCC
Within 3 y of follow-up
OR (95% CI)More than 3 y
OR (95% CI)
HCC/controlsHCC/controls
AFB1-albumin adducts
    Positive vs negative7.49 (5.13-10.93)*
    NegativeBelow mean (<59.8)44/4891.012/1741.032/3151.0
    NegativeAbove mean (≥59.8)31/2621.64 (0.89-3.03)7/672.58 (0.78-8.59)24/1951.42 (0.68-2.99)
    PositiveBelow mean (<59.8)111/2197.03 (4.45-11.09)*46/1194.32 (2.12-8.79)*65/10011.22 (6.05-20.82)*
    PositiveAbove mean (≥59.8)44/8210.38 (5.73-18.82)*18/399.87 (3.70-26.39)*26/4310.71 (4.88-23.50)*
Ptrend < 0.0001Ptrend < 0.0001Ptrend < 0.0001
Urinary AFB1 metabolites
    NegativeBelow mean (<55.2)22/3701.07/1501.015/2201.0
    NegativeAbove mean (≥55.2)33/2662.84 (1.44-5.57)*10/834.18 (1.24-14.15)23/1832.34 (0.99-5.53)
    PositiveBelow mean (<55.2)63/13911.01 (5.79-20.92)*27/857.09 (2.41-20.86)*36/5420.95 (8.52-51.55)*
    PositiveAbove mean (≥55.2)80/12915.13 (7.83-29.25)*36/6812.72 (4.29-37.75)*44/6119.80 (7.88-49.75)*
Ptrend < 0.0001Ptrend < 0.0001Ptrend < 0.0001
    NegativeBoth below mean15/2401.0
    NegativeEither one above mean28/3042.01 (0.92-4.39)
    NegativeBoth above mean12/922.84 (1.06-7.62)
    PositiveBoth below mean47/1049.22 (4.39-19.34)*
    PositiveEither one above mean73/12612.87 (6.20-26.72)*
    PositiveBoth above mean23/3817.29 (6.98-42.82)*
Ptrend < 0.0001
  • NOTE: ORs were adjusted for batch of aflatoxin biomarker assay, anti-HCV status, habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, and BMI.

  • * P < 0.0001.

  • P < 0.05.