Table 3.

Biomarkers of AFB1 exposure and risk of HCC by HBsAg status

HBsAg positive
HBsAg negative
No. HCCNo. controlsOR (95% CI)No. HCCNo. controlsOR (95% CI)
AFB1-albumin adducts (fmol/mg)
    Nondetectable10151.05421.0
    Detectable1452860.58 (0.18-1.91)707091.17 (0.27-5.13)
    Below mean (<59.8)1112191.0444891.0
    Above mean (≥59.8)44821.43 (0.76-2.71)312621.65 (0.63-4.33)
    <26.950951.0161681.0
    ≥26.9 to <43.535790.75 (0.38-1.46)231831.87 (0.67-5.21)
    ≥43.5 to <71.3535691.14 (0.53-2.46)141951.03 (0.32-3.31)
    ≥71.3535581.46 (0.66-3.24)222051.70 (0.46-6.28)
Ptrend = 0.33Ptrend = 0.64
Urinary AFB1 metabolites (fmol/mL)
    Nondetectable19501.04571.0
    Detectable1242181.31 (0.64-2.67)515793.00 (0.36-24.90)
    Below mean (<55.2)631391.0223701.0
    Above mean (≥55.2)801291.19 (0.72-1.98)332664.29 (1.43-12.85)*
    <25.733691.0121561.0
    ≥25.7 to 48.522500.93 (0.41-2.16)91730.57 (0.14-2.43)
    ≥48.5 to 77.3536710.65 (0.29-1.45)91591.43 (0.32-6.42)
    ≥77.3552781.23 (0.62-2.41)251484.91 (1.18-20.48)*
Ptrend = 0.54Ptrend = 0.02
  • NOTE: ORs were adjusted for batch of aflatoxin biomarker assay, anti-HCV status, habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, and BMI.

  • * P < 0.01.