Table 2.

Biomarkers of AFB1 exposure and risk of HCC

AFB1 exposureCases, n (%)Controls, n (%)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)*
AFB1-albumin adducts (fmol/mg)
    Mean (SD)56.5 (53.5)59.8 (59.5)
    Nondetectable15 (6.5)57 (5.4)1.01.0
    Detectable215 (93.5)995 (94.6)0.92 (0.49-1.74)0.99 (0.48-2.02)
    Below mean (<59.8)155 (67.4)708 (67.3)1.01.0
    Above mean (≥59.8)75 (32.6)344 (32.7)1.10 (0.76-1.60)1.54 (1.01-2.36)
    <26.966 (28.7)263 (25.0)1.01.0
    ≥26.9 to <43.558 (25.2)262 (24.9)0.92 (0.61-1.41)1.11 (0.69-1.83)
≥43.5 to <71.3549 (22.3)264 (25.1)0.76 (0.48-1.21)1.18 (0.69-2.03)
    ≥71.3557 (24.8)263 (25.0)0.94 (0.58-1.51)1.47 (0.83-2.58)
Ptrend = 0.58Ptrend = 0.19
Urinary AFB1 metabolites (fmol/mL)
    Mean (SD)71.3 (54.9)55.2 (41.9)
    Nondetectable23 (11.6)107 (11.9)1.01.0
    Detectable175 (88.4)797 (88.1)1.07 (0.59-1.94)1.70 (0.89-3.25)
    Below mean (<55.2)85 (42.9)509 (56.3)1.01.0
    Above mean (≥55.2)113 (57.1)395 (43.7)1.77 (1.27-2.47)1.76 (1.18-2.58)
    <25.745 (22.7)225 (24.9)1.01.0
    ≥25.7 to 48.531 (15.7)223 (24.7)0.76 (0.45-1.27)0.98 (0.54-1.78)
    ≥48.5 to 77.3545 (22.7)230 (25.4)0.97 (0.59-1.59)0.95 (0.55-1.69)
    ≥77.3577 (38.9)226 (25.0)1.91 (1.21-3.01)1.99 (1.18-3.36)
Ptrend = 0.0009Ptrend = 0.008
  • * Adjusted for batch of aflatoxin biomarker assay, HBsAg, anti-HCV status, habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, and BMI.

  • P < 0.01.