Table 3.

Ratio of geometric means (95% CI) of 1-OHPyrFS concentration in urine (ng/L) related to tobacco smoke exposure status by participant characteristics, NHANES 1999-2002

Tobacco smoke exposure status
Unexposed*InvoluntaryActive
Age group (y)
    Children (6-11)1.00 (reference)1.58 (1.25-1.99)N/A
    Adolescents (12-19)1.00 (reference)1.56 (1.18-2.08)2.35 (1.95-2.83)
    Adults (20-85)1.00 (reference)1.38 (1.19-1.60)2.95 (2.46-3.54)
Sex
    Male1.00 (reference)1.51 (1.26-1.80)2.73 (2.32-3.22)
    Female1.00 (reference)1.35 (1.18-1.55)2.83 (2.30-3.49)
Race/ethnicity
    White1.00 (reference)1.50 (1.28-1.75)2.98 (2.41-3.68)
    Black1.00 (reference)1.20 (0.90-1.62)2.69 (1.87-3.86)
    Mexican American1.00 (reference)1.42 (1.17-1.73)1.95 (1.57-2.42)
    Other1.00 (reference)1.25 (0.91-1.70)2.04 (1.49-2.80)
Education level
    <High school1.00 (reference)1.47 (1.30-1.65)2.79 (2.44-3.18)
    High school1.00 (reference)1.44 (1.16-1.78)3.15 (2.34-4.25)
    >High school1.00 (reference)1.45 (1.19-1.78)2.67 (2.16-3.31)
Poverty level (PIR)
    Low1.00 (reference)1.38 (1.11-1.72)2.99 (2.35-3.81)
    Medium1.00 (reference)1.47 (1.19-1.81)2.80 (2.21-3.52)
    High1.00 (reference)1.47 (1.24-1.74)2.41 (2.03-2.87)
Grilled/broiled meat
    No1.00 (reference)1.46 (1.29-1.66)2.83 (2.39-3.35)
    Yes1.00 (reference)1.10 (0.82-1.48)2.16 (1.47-3.18)
  • NOTE: Model was adjusted by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, PIR, self-reported dietary grilled/broiled meat, and urinary creatinine. The model was fit based on linear regression with complex survey design weighting using log10-transformed urinary PAH metabolite concentrations. Ratios were reported as detransformed β. A ratio of 1.58, for instance, indicates a 58% increased level with respect to the reference category.

  • * Unexposed defined as not being a current smoker, having cotinine level <0.05 ng/mL, and no report of living with any smoker in the home.

  • Involuntary defined as not being a current smoker, having cotinine level 0.05 to <10 ng/mL, or report of living with any smoker in the home.

  • Active defined as being a current smoker or having cotinine level ≥10 ng/mL.