Table 2.

Ratio (95% CI) of the geometric means of PAH metabolite concentrations in urine in the U.S. population: NHANES 1999-2002

Characteristics%*1-OHPyr1-OHPhe2-OHPhe3-OHPhe9-OHPhe
Sex
    Male481.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Female521.00 (0.91-1.10)1.17 (1.09-1.25)1.03 (0.94-1.13)0.99 (0.92-1.06)1.08 (0.97-1.20)
Age group (y)
    6-11101.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    12-19130.61 (0.55-0.68)0.85 (0.74-0.99)0.85 (0.71-1.03)0.67 (0.59-0.75)0.57 (0.47-0.68)
    20-39310.65 (0.58-0.72)0.93 (0.84-1.03)1.10 (0.97-1.24)0.71 (0.63-0.81)0.68 (0.58-0.81)
    40-59290.67 (0.58-0.77)1.13 (1.00-1.28)1.27 (1.08-1.48)§0.79 (0.69-0.89)0.94 (0.76-1.17)
    ≥60170.55 (0.49-0.62)1.12 (0.99-1.28)1.22 (1.06-1.40)§0.82 (0.69-0.97)0.94 (0.74-1.19)
Race/ethnicity
    White691.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Black110.87 (0.74-1.02)0.73 (0.60-0.89)§0.84 (0.68-1.04)0.95 (0.79-1.14)0.65 (0.55-0.77)
    Mexican American80.96 (0.82-1.13)0.78 (0.65-0.92)§0.85 (0.68-1.05)0.82 (0.71-0.95)0.78 (0.68-0.89)§
    Other111.06 (0.88-1.28)0.85 (0.65-1.12)0.88 (0.64-1.22)0.82 (0.65-1.02)0.85 (0.64-1.14)
Education
    <High school371.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    High school210.95 (0.84-1.06)1.08 (0.96-1.22)1.02 (0.90-1.16)0.98 (0.87-1.11)0.87 (0.72-1.05)
    >High school420.84 (0.75-0.93)§0.91 (0.80-1.03)0.83 (0.71-0.97)0.90 (0.81-1.01)0.99 (0.81-1.22)
PIR
    Low (0 to <1.7)321.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Medium (1.7 to <3.9)330.86 (0.75-0.98)0.90 (0.78-1.04)0.83 (0.72-0.97)0.93 (0.81-1.06)0.98 (0.86-1.11)
    High (3.9 to 5)350.82 (0.69-0.96)0.86 (0.73-1.00)0.75 (0.64-0.87)0.84 (0.73-0.97)0.92 (0.76-1.12)
Grilled/broiled meat eaten
    No931.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Yes71.19 (0.97-1.45)1.13 (0.94-1.37)1.09 (0.90-1.32)1.25 (1.06-1.48)1.18 (1.06-1.33)§
Tobacco smoke exposure
    Unexposed391.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Involuntary341.43 (1.27-1.62)1.25 (1.09-1.42)§1.40 (1.17-1.67)1.30 (1.17-1.46)1.09 (0.95-1.24)
    Active
27
2.86 (2.45-3.35)
1.51 (1.32-1.73)
1.80 (1.49-2.17)
2.08 (1.77-2.44)
3.25 (2.81-3.76)
Characteristics
1-OHNap
2-OHNap
2-OHFle
3-OHFle
9-OHFle
Sex
    Male1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Female1.06 (0.99-1.14)1.16 (1.04-1.28)1.05 (0.98-1.12)1.01 (0.94-1.09)0.99 (0.90-1.09)
Age group (y)
    6-111.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    12-190.66 (0.55-0.80)0.66 (0.56-0.79)0.72 (0.62-0.83)0.69 (0.61-0.79)0.73 (0.64-0.84)
    20-390.76 (0.61-0.93)0.86 (0.75-0.99)0.86 (0.75-0.98)0.79 (0.70-0.90)0.86 (0.70-1.05)
    40-590.98 (0.73-1.32)1.09 (0.97-1.23)1.07 (0.95-1.21)0.96 (0.84-1.10)1.14 (0.90-1.44)
    ≥601.39 (1.05-1.85)0.92 (0.78-1.10)0.98 (0.85-1.13)0.81 (0.71-0.92)§1.22 (1.00-1.49)
Race/ethnicity
    White1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Black0.97 (0.75-1.25)1.13 (0.96-1.32)0.94 (0.71-1.24)1.00 (0.78-1.28)1.07 (0.93-1.22)
    Mexican American0.85 (0.72-0.99)1.14 (0.96-1.35)0.78 (0.61-1.00)0.73 (0.58-0.92)0.93 (0.75-1.16)
    Other0.88 (0.71-1.08)1.25 (0.95-1.64)0.93 (0.67-1.29)0.97 (0.74-1.27)0.79 (0.59-1.06)
Education
    <High school1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    High school1.00 (0.76-1.31)0.96 (0.86-1.06)1.07 (0.91-1.25)1.11 (0.95-1.29)0.98 (0.83-1.15)
    >High school0.92 (0.81-1.06)0.94 (0.80-1.12)0.84 (0.74-0.95)0.84 (0.74-0.96)1.01 (0.82-1.23)
PIR
    Low (0 to <1.7)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Medium (1.7 to <3.9)0.85 (0.75-0.96)0.82 (0.76-0.89)0.85 (0.74-0.97)0.85 (0.74-0.97)0.94 (0.84-1.05)
    High (3.9-5)0.85 (0.72-0.99)0.72 (0.67-0.78)0.75 (0.65-0.86)0.77 (0.68-0.87)0.83 (0.69-1.00)
Grilled/broiled meat eaten
    No1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Yes1.33 (1.12-1.58)§1.37 (1.12-1.68)§1.16 (0.96-1.40)1.21 (0.99-1.47)1.15 (0.96-1.38)
Tobacco smoke exposure
    Unexposed1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    Involuntary1.12 (0.96-1.30)1.17 (0.98-1.40)1.38 (1.16-1.65)1.36 (1.16-1.60)1.38 (1.17-1.63)§
    Active3.94 (3.53-4.38)4.50 (3.83-5.28)4.57 (3.84-5.43)6.87 (5.83-8.09)1.92 (1.62-2.29)
  • NOTE: Final model was adjusted by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, PIR, tobacco smoke exposure, self-reported dietary grilled/broiled meat, and urinary creatinine. The model was fit based on linear regression with complex survey design weight using log10-transformed urinary PAH metabolite concentrations. Ratios were reported as detransformed β.

  • * Weighted percentage.

  • P ≤ 0.001.

  • P ≤ 0.05.

  • § P ≤ 0.01.

  • Unexposed defined as not being a current smoker, having cotinine level <0.05 ng/mL, and no report of living with any smoker in the home; involuntary defined as not being a current smoker, having cotinine level 0.05 to <10 ng/mL, or report of living with any smoker in the home; active defined as being a current smoker or having cotinine level ≥10 ng/mL.