Table 3.

Estimated percent changes (95% CIs) in 1-OHP (μmol/mol creatinine) levels and four-random effects models for contributing factors

Estimated percent change (95% CI)
Model IModel IIModel IIIModel IV
Age−1.7 (−4.5 to 1.3)−1.4 (−4.3 to 1.5)−1.5 (−4.4 to 1.4)−1.6 (−4.4 to 1.4)
GenderBoyReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Girl17.6 (2.1-35.3)*16.8 (1.5-34.4)*16.3 (1.1-33.9)*16.5 (1.2-34.1)*
ETSNoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Yes−8.8 (−20.5 to 4.7)−8.1 (−19.9 to 5.4)−7.8 (−19.6 to 5.8)−8.0 (−19.8 to 5.5)
FoodNoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Yes17.6 (1.9-35.7)*18.8 (3.1-37.0)*18.4 (2.7-88.5)*16.5 (1.1-34.2)*
RegionRemoteReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Nearby62.5 (40.2-88.5)62.1 (39.7-88.2)62.4 (40.0-88.5)62.3 (39.8-88.3)
SeasonSpring8.7 (−6.0 to 25.8)6.3 (−8.2 to 23.0)6.8 (−7.7 to 23.5)
Summer40.9 (20.6-64.7)30.2 (9.9-54.3)*20.4 (1.2-43.2)*
Fall37.8 (18.6-60.2)34.0 (15.1-55.9)36.1 (16.9-58.3)
WinterReferenceReferenceReference
South wind (%)28.5 (3.8-59.1)*9.3 (−13.0-37.4)
PM10 lag 210.1 (4.8-15.7)
  • NOTE: Coefficients are expressed as percent changes in 1-OHP–associated contributing factors: model I included age (years), gender, ETS, and charbroiled meat consumption (yes/no); model II included model I plus season; model III included model II plus south wind; and model IV included model III plus PM10 lag 2.

  • * P < 0.05.

  • P < 0.001.

  • Percent change (95% CI) based on IQR (75-25%) of PM10 lag 2.