Table 1.

Characteristics of LACE cohort at study entry by outcome

Recurrence*
Deceased, breast cancer
Deceased, all causes
No (n = 1,745)Yes (n = 225)PNo (n = 1,868)Yes (n = 102)PNo (n = 1,783)Yes (n = 187)P
Person-years of follow-up6019,788-34510,478-69710,125-
Age at enrollment, mean y (SD)60.6 (10.8)60.4 (10.9)0.8060.4 (10.8)62.5 (10.7)0.0660.0 (10.7)65.3 (10.5)<0.0001
Race, n (%)0.930.570.77
    White1,421 (81.5)184 (81.8)1,524 (81.7)81 (79.4)1,451 (81.5)154 (82.4)
    Other322 (18.5)41 (18.2)342 (18.3)21(20.6)330 (18.5)33 (17.6)
Education, n (%)0.870.270.0003
    High school graduate or less464 (26.7)63 (28.0)494 (26.5)33 (32.4)459 (25.8)68 (36.4)
    Some college646 (37.1)84 (37.3)691 (37.1)39 (38.2)655 (36.8)75 (40.1)
    College graduate or more631 (36.2)78 (34.7)679 (36.4)30 (29.4)665 (37.4)44 (23.5)
Smoking status, n (%)0.270.380.0003
    Never940 (54.2)112 (49.8)1,003 (54.0)49 (48.0)973 (54.9)79 (42.3)
    Past676 (39.0)92 (40.9)725 (39.0)43 (42.2)684 (38.6)84 (44.9)
    Current119 (6.8)21 (9.3)130 (7.0)10 (9.8)116 (6.5)24 (12.8)
BMI at enrollment, mean kg/m2 (SD)27.4 (5.8)27.9 (6.1)0.3127.4 (5.8)28.3 (6.1)0.1427.3 (5.7)28.6 (6.5)0.01
Weight at 18 y, mean lbs (SD)120.8 (17.0)123.7 (17.6)0.02120.9 (16.9)125.6 (19.2)0.02120.8 (17.0)123.9 (17.9)0.03
Menopausal status, n (%)0.760.510.0004
    Postmenopausal1,139 (65.3)142 (63.1)1,211 (64.8)70 (68.6)1,136 (63.7)145 (77.5)
    Premenopausal370 (21.2)49 (21.8)402 (21.5)17 (16.7)398 (22.3)21 (11.2)
    Undetermined236 (13.5)34 (15.1)255 (13.7)15 (14.7)249 (14.0)21 (11.2)
Family history of breast cancer, n (%)0.980.960.69
    No1,388 (79.6)179 (79.6)1,486 (79.6)81 (79.4)1,416 (79.5)151 (80.7)
    Yes355 (20.4)46 (20.4)380 (20.4)21 (20.6)365 (20.5)36 (19.3)
Stage, n (%)<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
    I867 (49.8)73 (32.6)915 (49.1)25 (24.5)878 (49.3)62 (33.3)
    IIa582 (33.4)73 (32.6)623 (33.4)32 (31.4)593 (33.3)62 (33.3)
    IIb256 (14.7)58 (25.9)282 (15.1)32 (31.4)266 (14.9)48 (25.8)
    IIIa37 (2.1)20 (8.9)44 (2.4)13 (12.7)43 (2.4)14 (7.5)
Type of surgery, n (%)0.0010.020.01
    Conserving902 (51.7)91 (40.4)953 (51.0)40 (39.2)915 (51.3)78 (41.7)
    Mastectomy842 (48.3)134 (59.6)914 (49.0)62 (60.8)867 (48.7)109 (58.3)
Chemotherapy, n (%)<0.00010.010.62
    No786 (45.4)70 (31.5)825 (44.5)31 (31.3)773 (43.7)83 (45.6)
    Yes944 (54.6)152 (68.5)1,028 (55.5)68 (68.7)997 (56.3)99 (54.4)
Radiation therapy, n (%)0.330.060.38
    No639 (37.5)75 (34.1)686 (37.6)28 (28.3)653 (37.4)61 (34.1)
    Yes1,066 (62.5)145 (65.9)1,140 (62.4)71 (71.7)1,093 (62.6)118 (65.9)
Number of positive nodes, n (%)<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
    Node negative1,097 (66.9)90 (43.7)1,154 (66.0)33 (34.0)1,105 (66.2)82 (46.1)
    1-3409 (24.9)60 (29.1)435 (24.9)34 (35.1)418 (25.1)51 (28.6)
    ≥3134 (8.2)56 (27.2)160 (9.1)30 (30.9)145 (8.7)45 (25.3)
Tamoxifen use, n (%)0.310.790.09
    No389 (22.3)57 (25.3)424 (22.7)22 (21.6)413 (23.2)33 (17.6)
    Yes1,356 (77.7)168 (74.7)1,444 (77.3)80 (78.4)1,370 (76.8)154 (82.4)
ER/PR receptor status, n (%)0.010.060.03
    ER+, PR+1,196 (69.4)131 (59.8)1,268 (68.8)59 (59.6)1,212 (68.9)115 (62.8)
    ER+, PR−239 (13.9)36 (16.4)256 (13.9)19 (19.2)238 (13.5)37 (20.2)
    ER−, PR+27 (1.6)8 (3.7)31 (1.7)4 (4.0)29 (1.7)6 (3.3)
    ER−, PR−260 (15.1)44 (20.1)288 (15.6)17 (17.2)279 (15.9)25 (13.7)
Time from diagnosis to enrollment, mean y (SD)1.9 (0.6)1.9 (0.6)0.541.9 (0.6)1.9 (0.6)0.871.9 (0.6)1.9 (0.5)0.50
  • Abbreviations: ER+, estrogen receptor positive; ER−, estrogen receptor negative; PR+, progesterone receptor positive; PR−, progesterone receptor negative.

  • * Recurrence includes local, regional, or distant recurrence or metastasis or death from breast cancer if no recurrence was previously reported.

  • P value for t test for difference in means, or χ2 test for difference in proportions between women with and without the event.