Table 3.

TGF-α expression (staining optical density) according to diet and lifestyle risk factors, MAP II

Characteristic*nAllProp diff (%)Pdiff§nControlsProp diff (%)Pdiff§nCasesProp diff (%)Pdiff§
Age < 55 y320.94150.75171.12
Age ≥ 55 y281.0612.80.55140.84120.68141.2814.30.66
NSAID use never to <once/wk341.16130.83211.4
NSAID use once/wk260.74-36.20.05160.76-8.40.74100.66-52.90.05
HRT use never (women)71.6851.1122.72
HRT use ever (women)240.86-48.80.06100.66-4.10.23141.07-60.70.07
BMI < 30 kg/m2311.06130.78181.34
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (obese)290.93-12.30.5160.813.80.89131-25.40.33
Physical activity < 22 METs/d371.05200.85171.24
Physical activity > 22 METs/d230.99-5.70.7590.69-18.80.46141.272.40.92
No family history of CRC470.82200.72270.97
1° relative with CRC101.4779.20.0270.788.30.7832.53160.80.01
Dietary intakes
Total energy low201.13100.79101.43
Total energy high400.92-18.60.32190.75-5.10.84211.08-24.40.36
Total vitamin D low331.02160.82171.24
Total vitamin D high270.95-6.90.72130.77-6.10.82141.13-8.90.75
Total calcium low331.02170.79161.28
Total calcium high270.96-5.90.76120.81.30.97151.1-14.10.67
Total fiber low350.98160.78191.17
Total fiber high251.013.10.85130.813.80.89121.235.10.86
Sucrose low280.89150.62131.15
Sucrose high321.0821.30.33140.9858.10.07181.226.10.84
Red and processed meat low311.11150.82161.41
Red and processed meat high290.87-21.60.29140.77-6.10.87150.97-31.20.25
Low fat dairy low341.07160.88181.26
Low fat dairy high260.89-16.80.38130.69-21.60.35131.1-12.70.68
Fruit and vegetables low261.07120.97141.17
Fruit and vegetables high340.93-13.10.53170.67-30.90.16171.213.40.91
  • NOTE: Batch standardized as individual value divided by batch mean; full crypt values.

  • * All estimates (except age) adjusted for age; cut points based on medians in all MAP II controls.

  • Adjusted for case-control status.

  • Proportional difference = difference between means [high - low (reference)] divided by low or mean in reference group × 100%.

  • § Difference P value for comparison of means (analysis of covariance).

  • Physical activity and total energy intake mutually adjusted for each other.

  • Nutrient values residual energy-adjusted + total energy intake covariate; cut points based on sex-specific medians in all controls.