Table 1.

Exposure to specific agents investigated in mother-child pairs, their source of exposure, and class of toxicity

Model compoundChemical classSource of exposureClass of toxicity
Benzo(a)pyrenePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsEnvironmental contamination of the food chain; formation during baking and frying; smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smokeGenotoxic carcinogenesis, immunotoxicity
2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5] quinoline 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridineHeterocyclic aminesFormation during baking and broilingGenotoxic carcinogenesis
MonoacrylamideAcrylamidesFormation during baking and fryingGenotoxic carcinogenesis
DimethylnitrosamineNitrosaminesEnvironmental nitrate contamination of the food chain and subsequent endogenous formationGenotoxic carcinogenesis
DeoxynivalenolMycotoxinsEnvironmental contamination of the food chainImmunotoxicity
Dioxin (TCDD) PCBOrganochlorinesEnvironmental contamination of the food chainCocarcinogenesis, immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption
4-Hydroxynonenal malondialdehydeAldehydes (DNA-reactive)MacronutrientsGenotoxicity via lipid peroxidation immunotoxicity
EthanolAlcoholsLifestyle factorCocarcinogenesis immunotoxicity