Table 1.

Characteristics of study participants by cigarette smoking status at baseline (CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, men and women)

MenWomen
Never smoker (n = 18,336)Former smoker (n = 27,759)Current smoker (n = 5,270)Never smoker (n = 41,284)Former smoker (n = 26,091)Current smoker (n = 6,011)
Age at baseline, median (IQR)63 (59-68)64 (60-68)62 (58-66)62 (58-67)62 (57-67)61 (56-65)
Smoking history at baseline, median (IQR)
    Years of smoking23 (15-34)43 (38-48)20 (10-30)40 (31-44)
    Cigarettes/d-20 (10-30)15 (10-20)
    Years since cessation20 (10-28)20 (10-29)
    Years since Initiation47 (42-50)45 (40-49)43 (38-48)41 (37-46)
Education (%)
    Did not finish high school5.79.811.85.23.97.1
    High school graduate/vocational22.727.631.641.032.439.6
    Some college16.121.623.923.728.026.8
    College graduate54.640.431.829.535.025.8
White (%)97.697.897.297.497.897.3
Positive family history of colorectal cancer (%)5.25.04.76.05.95.5
Physical inactivity (MET <3.5) (%)9.712.223.78.58.615.3
Body mass index (%)
    Underweight/normal, <25 kg/m240.932.341.350.452.360.6
    Overweight, 25-29.9 kg/m246.050.545.331.831.028.0
    Obese, >30 kg/m211.615.912.216.315.310.3
Alcohol consumption (%)
    Nondrinker44.629.729.655.333.436.8
    <1 drink/d37.638.233.533.844.436.5
    1 drink/d8.913.610.14.811.210.3
    2 drinks/d2.57.010.21.25.28.5
    ≥3 drinks/d2.37.411.80.52.53.8
Vegetable consumption (%)
    Quartile 1 (lowest)19.121.129.119.216.325.6
    Quartile 221.220.721.319.819.320.7
    Quartile 324.323.620.424.925.321.7
    Quartile 4 (highest)27.325.117.827.431.422.0
Fiber/whole grain consumption (%)
    Quartile 1 (lowest)18.223.636.517.219.431.0
    Quartile 220.021.722.821.823.624.2
    Quartile 322.921.115.924.524.418.9
    Quartile 4 (highest)30.824.113.427.825.015.8
Red/processed meat consumption (%)
    Quartile 1 (lowest)22.419.07.635.440.126.5
    Quartile 221.820.114.825.725.525.0
    Quartile 325.425.525.220.618.724.2
    Quartile 4 (highest)22.325.941.19.78.114.3
Aspirin use (%)
    No use51.946.549.660.158.559.2
    1-14 pills/mo13.112.013.713.612.913.4
    15-29 pills/mo9.39.28.07.37.66.9
    30-59 pills/mo19.024.019.211.012.811.0
    ≥60 pills/mo4.35.46.25.25.76.5
Hormone replacement therapy use (%)
    Never44.338.648.0
    Current32.336.927.2
    Former22.323.423.7
Current multivitamin use (%)31.631.927.940.443.036.9
Ever had endoscopy as of 1997 (%)51.849.632.345.349.134.0

Abbreviation: IQR, interquartile range.