Table 3.

Associations between tobacco smoking and UADT cancer risk by subsite for different types of tobacco products

UADTOral cavity and oropharynxHypopharynx and larynx
CasesControlsOR (95% CI)CasesControlsOR (95% CI)CasesControlsOR (95% CI)
Cigarette smoking frequency* (cigarettes/d)
    Never1797121.001097121.00347121.00
    >0-102384022.35 (1.84-2.99)1314022.20 (1.63-2.96)744023.50 (2.26-5.43)
    11-208276124.95 (4.00-6.13)3906124.19 (3.22-5.46)3276128.40 (5.70-12.37)
    >207794086.23 (4.93-7.88)3324085.05 (3.78-6.76)37840811.91 (8.00-17.74)
    Ptrend<0.001<0.001<0.001
Cigarette smoking duration* (y)
    Never1797121.001097121.00347121.00
    >1-9541411.60 (1.11-2.30)301411.52 (0.96-2.40)141411.87 (0.96-3.64)
    10-191142252.01 (1.50-2.70)582251.75 (1.20-2.54)422253.30 (2.01-5.41)
    20-399757244.28 (3.46-5.29)4597243.58 (2.76-4.65)4067247.68 (5.23-11.28)
    ≥407033337.20 (5.68-9.12)3073336.30 (4.71-8.42)31833312.93 (8.64-19.34)
    Ptrend<0.001<0.001<0.001
Cigar smoking frequency (cigarette equivalents/d)
    Never1797121.001097121.00347121.00
    >0-1061416.24 (2.80-13.89)23415.14 (1.81-14.56)33418.36 (2.87-24.37)
    11-2032265.03 (2.06-12.30)16266.26 (2.01-19.47)15264.53 (1.33-15.45)
    >2037386.02 (2.52-14.37)21387.66 (2.71-21.62)14383.93 (1.12-13.73)
    Ptrend0.8630.3580.083
Cigar smoking duration (y)
    Never1797121.001097121.00347121.00
    >1-963564.98 (2.23-11.12)32566.23 (2.30-16.85)27565.64 (1.89-16.79)
    10-1923215.31 (2.07-13.64)8214.14 (1.22-14.09)14217.52 (2.17-26.01)
    20-3935258.22 (3.42-19.74)182510.61 (3.40-33.06)15256.79 (2.02-22.86)
    ≥4011611.18 (2.67-46.80)3611.90 (1.55-91.67)7610.36 (1.80-59.54)
    Ptrend0.0930.2470.450
Pipe smoking frequency (cigarette equivalents/d)
    Never1797121.001097121.00347121.00
    >0-1050525.47 (2.53-11.84)30526.54 (2.54-16.82)15524.14 (1.29-13.33)
    11-2022393.02 (1.24-7.36)9392.65 (0.80-8.75)10393.44 (1.01-11.66)
    >2040545.02 (2.11-11.95)16544.15 (1.34-12.88)17546.19 (1.76-21.81)
    Ptrend0.7210.2310.449
Pipe smoking duration (y)
    Never1797121.001097121.00347121.00
    >1-9651013.21 (1.47-7.02)311013.56 (1.34-9.49)271013.81 (1.25-11.57)
    10-1916205.37 (2.00-14.41)6204.19 (1.15-15.21)5204.19 (0.94-18.79)
    20-3929209.57 (4.00-22.88)182015.90 (5.43-46.56)8206.11 (1.63-22.95)
    ≥40565.68 (1.32-24.40)163.61 (0.32-40.45)4610.35 (1.86-57.72)
    Ptrend0.0050.0040.157

NOTE: Ptrend values were calculated among ever smokers only. 1 cigar = 4 cigarettes and 1 pipe = 3.5 cigarettes for comparison purpose. Esophageal cancer patients were not included due to sparse data.

  • *Adjusted for age, sex, education, center, and alcohol drinking intensity and duration.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, education, center, alcohol drinking intensity and duration, and smoking duration.