Table 4.

Summary of inhalation/exhalation monitoring methods used for assessing human smoking behavior (excerpted from internal company documents)

Author/yearMethodVariables measuredLimitations
Cinkotai F.F. 1967*Partial body plethysmographyVolume of the puffDiscomfort leading to high puff by puff variation observed in the breathing patterns of individual smokers and abnormal tidal breathing caused by stress
Puff volumes and duration determined with a modified cigarette holder as a flow meterDuration of the puff
Holding time of the puff in the mouth
Lung volume at the beginning of the puff
Time of inhalation
Volume of air inhaled with the puff
Volume of exhaled air
Time of exhalation.
Creighton D.E. 1978 (66)Impedance pneumographyPuff profiles and puff volumesNeeds calibration against a partial body plethysmograph before each use. Nonlinear response and day-to-day variations for individual and variation between subjects.
Puff profiles and puff volumes measured with a special cigarette holder and a pressure transducerSemiquantitative estimates of breathing patterns
Guillerm R. and Radziszewski E. 1975 (170)The Guillerm and Radziszewski MethodPuff volume and durationThe puff volume recorded did not always correspond to the true inhaled puff volume and the technique imposed some physical restrictions on the subject, particularly concerning the cigarette holder.
A flow meter constructed from a classic cigarette holder with a bead placed between the two snap-in-parts of the holder connected by flexible polyvinyl tubing to a differential transducer. A special IR pyrometer used to measure the temperature variations of the combustion cone of the cigarette.No. of and intervals between puffs
Volume of air taken between puffs
Volume of air inhaled immediately after the puff
Location of the puff in the ventilatory cycle
The breathing pattern was measured at the same time as the puff analysis
Rawbone R.G. 1978 (171)Mercury strain gauge chest pneumographyPuff volumes,Calibration was required before each study.
The puff parameters were obtained from measurements of the pressure drop across a small resistance inserted between the cigarette and the smoker. The depth of inhalation was measured by recording movements of the chest wall with a mercury strain gauge chest pneumogram.Puff duration
Interpuff interval
Semiquantitative estimates of breathing patterns
Sackner M.A. 1980 (172)Respiratory inductive plethysmographyNo. of puffsAccuracy of the results depended on the initial calibration and the stability of the calibration during changes in body positions and lung volumes.
Tobin M.J. 1982 (128, 142)Consisting in two coils of Teflon-insulated wire, which were sown into elastic bands encircling the rib cage and the abdomen and connected to an oscillator module. Tidal volume measured by spirometry.Puff duration,
Puff volumes,
Integrated puff pressure.
Accurate estimation of breathing patterns