Table 11.

Apoptosis assays used for ST extracts

AssayEnd point measuredCell studiedExtraction solution and timeST productResults reported in studyReference
PI labeling analyzed by flow cytometryPI stains DNA of damaged cellsNormal human oral keratinocytesPBSReference smokeless chewing tobacco (2S1)Concentration-dependent response observedBagchi, M 1999 (114)
Golden Syrian hamster oral epidermoid carcinoma cellsDMEMReference smokeless moist tobacco (2S3)Dose-dependent response observedMangipudy, RS 1999 (103)
Golden Syrian hamster oral epidermoid carcinoma cellsDMEMReference ST (2S3)Dose-dependent response observedBanerjee, AG 2007 (100)
TUNEL with dUTP labelingMeasure DNA fragments due to apoptosisGolden Syrian hamster oral epidermoid carcinoma cellsDMEMReference smokeless moist tobacco (2S3)Dose-dependent response observedMangipudy, RS 1999 (103)
Golden Syrian hamster oral epidermoid carcinoma cellsDMEMReference ST (2S3)Dose-dependent response observedBanerjee, AG 2007 (100)