Table 4.

Evidence table of case-control studies reporting odds ratios and 95% confidence limits for the association between total cruciferous vegetable or isothiocyanate content consumption (highest versus lowest category) and lung cancer risk, stratified by GST status

StudyCases/controlsExposureIntake frequencyGSTM1 null
GSTT1 null
GST statusOR (95% CI)
CasesControlsCasesControlsPresentNull
(19) Spitz, 2000
503/465Dietary ITC* intake≤Median246 (49.4)226 (48.8)132 (27.3)104 (22.7)GSTM10.56 (0.38-0.82)0.81 (0.55-1.19)
>MedianGSTT10.69 (0.50-0.94)0.53 (0.31-0.91)
GSTM1&T10.67 (0.50-0.89)0.46 (0.20-1.04)
(38) Zhao, 2001
233/187Dietary ITC* intake≤Median146 (62.7)119 (63.6)132 (56.7)102 (54.5)GSTM10.78 (0.39-1.59)0.55 (0.33-0.93)
>MedianGSTT10.75 (0.40-1.40)0.54 (0.310.95)
GSTM1/T10.69 (0.41-1.17)0.47 (0.23-0.95)
(39) Lewis, 2002
122/123Dietary CV intake<1/mo65 (53.3)53 (43.1)N/AN/AGSTM10.65 (0.16-2.66)0.27 (0.06-1.33)
>4/mo
(20) Wang, 2004
716/939Dietary CVs intakeLow404 (56.4)516 (55.0)138 (19.4)185 (19.8)GSTM10.61 (0.39-0.95)§1.15 (0.78-1.68)§
HighGSTT10.87 (0.63-1.21)§0.81 (0.42-1.51)§
GSTM1&T10.67 (0.54-0.82)§0.70 (0.391.26)§
(40) Brennan, 2005
2,141/2,168Dietary CV intake<1 Time/mo1,022 (47.7)986 (45.4)340 (15.8)344 (15.8)GSTM10.89 (0.67-1.18)0.67 (0.49-0.91)
≥4 Times/moGSTT10.83 (0.66-1.03)0.63 (0.37-1.07)
GSTM1&T10.88 (0.65-1.21)0.28 (0.11-0.67)
  • NOTE: Highest versus lowest (reference group).

    Abbreviation: ITC, isothiocyanate content, cv; cruciferous vegetables; N/A, not applicable.

  • * Isothiocyanate contents estimated from dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables.

  • GSTM1&T1 is GSTM1 and GSTT1.

  • GSTM1/T1 is GSTM1 or GSTT1.

  • § Odds ratio and 95% CI calculated from published data using EpiCalc 2000.