Table 3.

Results of studies examining the association between total cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer using more than two categories of vegetable intake (dose-response analyses)

Reference (y)Types of CV examinedIntake frequencyCases/controls*OR (95% CI)P for trendMatched/adjusted variables
ABCO
Cohort studies
(33) Chow (LBIS, 1992)Not specified<2 Times/mo43/58,455*1.0 (ref)N/R
2-4 Times/mo112/146,730*0.9 (0.6-1.3)
5-8 Times/mo46/56,035*1.0 (0.7-1.5)
>8 Times/mo18/25,861*0.8 (0.5-1.4)
(17) Feskanich (NHS, 2000)Cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, broccoli, coleslaw/sauerkraut0-1.3 Servings/wkN/R1.0 (ref)N/R
1.4-2.2 Servings/wk0.80 (0.62-1.05)
2.3-3.2 Servings/wk0.85 (0.65-1.12)
3.3-4.8 Servings/wk0.76 (0.57-1.01)
>4.8 Servings/wk0.74 (0.55-0.99)
(17) Feskanich (HPFS, 2000)Cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, broccoli, coleslaw/sauerkraut0-1.3 Servings/wkN/R1.0 (ref)N/R
1.4-2.1 Servings/wk1.12 (0.76-1.64)
2.2-3.3. servings/wk1.05 (0.72-1.53)
3.4-5.0 Servings/wk0.86 (0.57-1.30)
>5.0 Servings/wk1.11 (0.76-1.64)
(31) Voornips (NCS, 2000)Cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, kale≤1 Time/mo52/598*1.0 (ref)0.003
2-3 Times/mo150/2,713*0.7 (0.4-1.1)
4 Times/mo347/6,676*0.6 (0.4-0.9)
8 Times/mo308/6,085*0.5 (0.4-0.8)
≥12 Times/mo53/988*0.5 (0.3-0.9)
(32) Neuhouser (CARET, 2003)Cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, broccoli, coleslaw, sauerkraut, mustard greens, turnip greens, and collards≤0.5 Servings/wkN/R1.0 (ref)0.01
0.6-1.2 Servings/wk1.36 (0.98-1.88)
1.3-1.9 Servings/wk0.89 (0.62-1.27)
2.0-3.4 Servings/wk0.96 (0.67-1.39)
≥3.5 Servings/wk0.68 (0.45-1.04)
(30) Miller (EPIC, 2004)Cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, and broccoliQ1N/R1.0 (ref)0.25
Q21.13 (0.89-1.43)
Q31.21 (0.94-1.55)
Q41.11 (0.87-1.43)
Q51.21 (0.92-1.60)
Case-control studies
(34) Koo (1988)Total CV: nonspecificNever to <1 time/mo88/1371.0 (ref)0.36
1-3 Times/mo1.3 (0.64-1.99)
≥4 Times/mo0.75 (0.28-2.00)
(36) Pierce (1989)Total CV: Broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sproutsNever to 1 time/mo7/51.0 (ref)0.23
1-5 Times/wk21/430.35 (0.1-1.23)
≥7 Times/wk43/231.34 (0.38-4.68)
(35) Agudo (1997)Total CV: Broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflowerLowN/R1.0 (ref)0.13
MediumN/R0.93 (0.52-1.66)
HighN/R0.54 (0.26-1.13)
(37) Nyberg (1998)Total CV: Broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower<Weekly49/811.0 (ref)0.33
1 Time weekly28/660.79 (0.42-1.52)
>1 Time weekly47/881.06 (0.58-1.92)
(41) Brennan (2000)Total CV: Broccoli, cabbage/kale, and cauliflowerNever to <weekly200/3821.0 (ref)0.76
<Weekly to weekly111/2341.0 (0.7-1.3)
>1 Time weekly to daily113/2541.1 (0.7-1.6)
(39) Lewis (2002)§Total CV: Broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower<0.9 Portion/mo54/511.0 (ref)0.35
1-4 Portions/mo37/530.58 (0.26-1.32)
>4 Portion/mo31/190.64 (0.25-1.67)
(42) Hu (2002)Total CV: Broccoli and cabbage≤0.9 Servings/wk44/1101.0 (ref)0.43
1-2 Servings/wk50/1550.7 (0.4-1.3)
2.1-6.0 Servings/wk32/1010.7 (0.4-1.4)
>6 Servings/wk33/1120.8 (0.4-1.4)
(20) Wang (2004)§Total CV: Broccoli, cabbage/coleslaw/sauerkraut, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale/mustard greensLow294/3291.0 (ref)N/RbbB
Medium198/2960.75 (0.59-0.95)
High224/3140.80 (0.63-1.01)
(40) Brennan (2005)§Total CV: Broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts<1 Time monthly327/2501 (ref)N/R
1 Time weekly677/7540.77 (0.62-0.95)
≥1 Time weekly1,137/1,1640.78 (0.64-0.96)
  • NOTE: Matched or adjusted variables: A = age; B = sex; C = smoking status or exposure; and O = other.

    Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; ref, reference.

  • * Person-years for cohort studies.

  • Never smokers only.

  • Odds ratio and 95% CI calculated from published data using EpiCalc 2000.

  • § Bolded studies reported odds ratios and 95% CIs stratified by GST status.