Table 2.

Characteristics of case-control studies reporting odd ratios and 95% CIs for the association between total cruciferous vegetable consumption (highest versus lowest category) and lung cancer risk, without stratification by GST status

Reference (y)Country studySource of controlsCases/controlsSexAge (mean)Case ascertainmentType of dietary questionnaireTotal CVs measured as broccoli, cabbage, and plus
(34) Koo (1988)Hong KongUnknown (never smokers)88/137FN/R (58)HistologyFFQNonspecific
(36) Pierce (1989)Australia: MelbourneHospital71/71MN/R (67)Histology and cytologyDietary questionsBrussels sprouts
(35) Agudo (1997)SpainHospital103/206F/M32-88 (63)HistologyFFQCauliflower
(37) Nyberg(1998)SwedenHospital (never smokers)124/235F/M30-80 (N/R)Histology and cytologyFFQCauliflower
(41) Brennan (2000)Europe: Sweden, Germany, France, Spain, UK, and ItalyHospital (never smokers)506/1,045F/MN/RHistologyFFQKale, cauliflower
(19) Spitz (2000)USInsurance registry (ever smokers)503/465F/MN/R (61)HistologyFFQCauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale, sauerkraut, mustard greens, turnip greens, collard greens
(38) Zhao (2001)Asia: SingaporeHospital233/187FN/R (64)PathologyFFQCauliflower, Chinese white/flowering cabbage, Chinese mustard, watercress, Chinese kale
(39) Lewis (2002)Europe and South AmericaN/R (never smokers)122/123F/M18-85 (59)HistologyFFQCauliflower
(16) Caicoya (2002)Europe: SpainHospital197/196F/MN/RPathology and cytologyFFQBrussels sprouts
(46) Hu (2002)CanadaPopulation (never smokers)161/483F20-70+ (N/R)HistologyFFQ
(20) Wang (2004)USHospital; friends and non–blood related family members716/939F/M18-85 (59)HistologyFFQColeslaw/sauerkraut, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale/mustard greens
(40) Brennan (2005)Europe: Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Russia, and HungaryHospital and population2,141/2,168F/MN/RN/RFFQBrussels sprouts
  • NOTE: Bolded studies reported odd ratios and 95% CIs stratified by GST status.

    Abbreviations: N/R, not reported; Ctrls, controls.