Table 1.

Characteristics of cohort studies reporting relative risks and 95% CIs for the association between total cruciferous vegetable consumption (highest versus lowest category) and lung cancer incidence

Reference (study name, y)Country studyFollow-up (y)SexAge (at recruitment)No. of casesSize of cohortCase ascertainmentType of dietary questionnaireTotal CVs measured as cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts plus
(33) Chow (LBIS, 1992)US11.5M35+21917,633Death certificatesFFQNot specified
(17) Feskanich (NHS, 2000)US12F30-55519121,700PathologyFFQBroccoli, coleslaw/sauerkraut
(17) Feskanich (HPFS, 2000)US10M40-7527451,529Medical recordsFFQBroccoli, coleslaw/sauerkraut
(31) Voornips (NCS, 2000)*Netherlands6F/MN/A1,0103,500Pathology and cancer registriesFFQKale
(32) Neuhouser (CARET, 2003)US (heavy smokers)8F/MN/A3267,048Pathology and clinical recordsFFQBroccoli, coleslaw, sauerkraut, mustard greens, turnip greens, and collards
(30) Miller (EPIC, 2004)Europe4F/M25-70860482,924Histology, pathology, and cancer registriesFFQBroccoli
  • Abbreviations: US, United States; FFQ, food frequency questionnaire; N/A, unknown; M, male; F, female; LBIS, Lutheran Brotherhood Insurance Society; NHS, Nurse's Health Study; HPFS, Health Professional Follow-up Study; NCS, Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; CARET, β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial; and CV, cruciferous vegetable.

  • * Case-cohort study (N of subcohort = 3500).