Table 4.

Gastric cancer risk and telomere length by known or potential risk factors

Demographic and risk factorsRTL*Cases, n (%)Controls, n (%)OR (95% CI)
Age (tertile), y
    ≤61Long84 (75.7)127 (84.7)1.00 (reference)
Short27 (24.3)23 (15.3)1.61 (0.85-3.04)
    62-69Long55 (55.6)97 (70.3)1.00 (reference)
Short44 (44.4)41 (29.7)1.83 (1.06-3.15)
    ≥70Long40 (44.4)88 (68.7)1.00 (reference)
Short50 (55.6)40 (31.3)2.78 (1.57-4.90)
Sex
    MaleLong113 (56.8)199 (74.0)1.00 (reference)
Short86 (43.2)70 (26.0)2.25 (1.50-3.38)
    FemaleLong66 (65.3)113 (76.9)1.00 (reference)
Short35 (34.7)34 (23.1)1.77 (1.00-3.12)
H. pylori status
    NegativeLong27 (54.0)55 (87.3)1.00 (reference)
Short23 (46.0)8 (12.7)5.45 (2.10-14.1)
    PositiveLong152 (60.8)256 (72.7)1.00 (reference)
Short98 (39.2)96 (27.3)1.78 (1.25-2.54)
Smoking status§
    NonsmokersLong48 (56.5)133 (80.1)1.00 (reference)
Short37 (43.5)33 (19.9)3.07 (1.71-5.51)
    FormerLong49 (54.4)94 (70.7)1.00 (reference)
Short41 (45.6)39 (29.3)2.02 (1.13-3.63)
    CurrentLong81 (65.8)85 (72.6)1.00 (reference)
Short42 (34.2)32 (27.4)1.40 (0.79-2.45)
Pack-years of smoking§
    0Long48 (56.5)133 (80.1)1.00 (reference)
Short37 (43.5)33 (19.9)3.07 (1.71-5.51)
    0.1-30Long64 (64.0)107 (78.1)1.00 (reference)
Short36 (36.0)30 (28.9)2.11 (1.17-3.80)
    >30Long65 (58.0)72 (64.3)1.00 (reference)
Short47 (42.0)40 (35.7)1.39 (0.80-2.42)
Total years of drinking alcohol
    NondrinkerLong60 (57.1)99 (72.8)1.00 (reference)
Short45 (42.9)37 (27.2)1.97 (1.13-3.44)
    <10Long45 (60.8)106 (77.4)1.00 (reference)
Short29 (39.2)31 (22.6)2.38 (1.26-4.49)
    10-29Long37 (72.5)70 (82.3)1.00 (reference)
Short14 (27.5)15 (17.7)2.28 (0.93-5.60)
    >29Long34 (53.1)36 (64.3)1.00 (reference)
Short30 (46.9)20 (35.7)1.67 (0.78-3.61)
Fruit intake
    Daily/weeklyLong82 (62.6)162 (80.2)1.00 (reference)
Short49 (37.4)40 (19.8)2.43 (1.46-4.05)
    Several times/monthLong60 (59.4)100 (73.0)1.00 (reference)
Short41 (40.6)37 (27.0)1.90 (1.08-3.34)
    Rarely/neverLong28 (54.9)49 (64.5)1.00 (reference)
Short23 (45.1)27 (35.5)1.73 (0.80-3.76)
Vegetable intake
    Daily/weeklyLong85 (60.3)195 (78.0)1.00 (reference)
Short56 (39.7)55 (22.0)2.39 (1.51-3.81)
    Several times/monthLong66 (61.1)85 (69.7)1.00 (reference)
Short42 (38.9)37 (30.3)1.63 (0.92-2.88)
    Rarely/neverLong19 (54.3)29 (72.5)1.00 (reference)
Short16 (45.7)11 (27.5)2.00 (0.73-5.50)
  • *Long: second, third, and fourth quartiles of telomere length; short: first quartile.

  • Adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and pack-years of smoking.

  • Negative, tested negative for IgG antibodies both to H. pylori and to cagA; positive, tested positive for either IgG antibodies to H. pylori or cagA antibody or both.

  • §Adjusted for each other.