Table 1.

Frequency of VDR expression in colorectal cancer

Clinical, pathologic, or molecular featureTotal nVDR+Univariate OR (95% CI)P
All cases619233 (38%)
Gender
    Men24483 (34%)1Reference
    Women375150 (40%)1.29 (0.92-1.81)0.13
Age at diagnosis (y)
    ≤5914160 (43%)1Reference
    60-69268104 (39%)0.86 (0.57-1.30)0.46
    ≥7021069 (33%)0.66 (0.43-1.03)0.065
BMI (kg/m2)
    <30483178 (37%)1Reference
    ≥3010038 (38%)1.05 (0.67-1.64)0.83
Family history of colorectal cancer
    (−)472180 (38%)1Reference
    (+)14753 (36%)0.91 (0.62-1.34)0.65
Tumor location
    Distal (splenic flexure to rectum)325131 (56%)1Reference
    Proximal (cecum to transverse)28798 (34%)0.77 (0.55-1.07)0.12
StageI13547 (35%)1Reference
    II18969 (37%)1.08 (0.68-1.71)0.75
    III17479 (45%)1.56 (0.98-2.47)0.060
    IV8427 (32%)0.89 (0.50-1.58)0.68
Tumor grade
    Low546214 (39%)1Reference
    High5311 (21%)0.41 (0.20-0.81)0.008
Mucinous component
    0%317124 (39%)1Reference
    ≥1%22174 (33%)0.78 (0.55-1.12)0.18
Signet ring cell component
    0%461179 (39%)1Reference
    ≥1%4110 (24%)0.51 (0.24-1.06)0.068
CIMP status (no. methylated CIMP markers)
    CIMP-0 (0)266100 (38%)1Reference
    CIMP-low (1-5)246100 (41%)1.14 (0.80-1.62)0.48
    CIMP-high (6-8)9127 (30%)0.70 (0.42-1.17)0.17
MSI status
    MSS461168 (36%)1Reference
    MSI-low5930 (51%)1.80 (1.05-3.11)0.032
    MSI-high9632 (33%)0.87 (0.55-1.39)0.56
MSI/CIMP status
    CIMP-low/0 MSI-low/MSS478186 (39%)1Reference
    CIMP-high MSI-low/MSS308 (27%)0.57 (0.25-1.31)0.18
    CIMP-low/0 MSI-high3212 (38%)0.94 (0.45-1.97)0.87
    CIMP-high MSI-high6119 (31%)0.71 (0.40-1.26)0.24
BRAF mutation
    (−)515194 (38%)1Reference
    (+)8628 (33%)0.80 (0.49-1.30)0.36
KRAS mutation
    (−)388131 (34%)1Reference
    (+)229101 (44%)1.55 (1.11-2.16)0.010
PIK3CA mutation
    (−)470158 (34%)1Reference
    (+)8444 (52%)2.17 (1.36-3.47)0.001
KRAS/PIK3CA mutation
    KRAS(−)/PIK3CA(−)31299 (32%)1Reference
    KRAS(−)/PIK3CA(+)3415 (44%)1.70 (0.83-3.48)0.14
    KRAS(+)/PIK3CA(−)15759 (38%)1.30 (0.87-1.94)0.21
    KRAS(+)/PIK3CA(+)5029 (58%)2.97 (1.61-5.47)0.0003
LINE-1 methylation
    ≥70%9533 (35%)1Reference
    50-69%424160 (38%)1.14 (0.71-1.81)0.58
    ≤49%7730 (39%)1.20 (0.64-2.24)0.57
p53 expression
    (−)355133 (37%)1Reference
    (+)25997 (37%)1.00 (0.72-1.39)0.99
p21
    Expressed11536 (31%)1Reference
    Lost490191 (39%)1.40 (0.91-2.16)0.13
Nuclear β-catenin expression
    (−)345136 (39%)1Reference
    (+)20778 (38%)0.93 (0.65-1.32)0.68
COX-2 expression
    (−)10431 (30%)1Reference
    (+)511199 (39%)1.50 (0.95-2.37)0.079