Table 3.

RRs and 95% CIs of cancer in relation to serum HDL cholesterol, ATBC Study cohort, 1985 to 2003 (N = 29,093)

Type of cancerHDL cholesterol (mg/dL)P
Quintile 1 (<36.2)Quintile 2 (36.2-41.6)Quintile 3 (41.7-47.2)Quintile 4 (47.3-55.2)Quintile 5 (>55.3)
All cancers
    No. of cases1,5151,4761,5371,5191,498
    Age-standardized rate*2,1081,9592,0061,9602,029
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.93 (0.86-1.00)0.95 (0.89-1.02)0.93 (0.87-1.00)0.96 (0.90-1.03)0.48
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.92 (0.85-0.98)0.93 (0.86-0.99)0.90 (0.83-0.97)0.89 (0.83-0.97)0.01
Lag analysis
    No. of cases§1,3081,2981,3551,3461,317
    RR (95% CI),§1 (reference)0.93 (0.86-1.00)0.94 (0.87-1.02)0.91 (0.84-0.99)0.90 (0.83-0.98)0.03
    No. of cases689709737739712
    RR (95% CI),1 (reference)0.93 (0.84-1.03)0.94 (0.85-1.03)0.92 (0.83-1.01)0.86 (0.77-0.96)0.008
    No. of cases491514544513503
    RR (95% CI),1 (reference)0.95 (0.84-1.08)0.95 (0.84-1.08)0.88 (0.77-0.99)0.85 (0.75-0.98)0.01
    No. of cases**198197194196217
    RR (95% CI),**1 (reference)0.88 (0.73-1.08)0.81 (0.66-0.99)0.79 (0.64-0.97)0.85 (0.69-1.02)0.10
Lung cancer
    No. of cases495499514564546
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.92 (0.81-1.05)0.91 (0.80-1.03)0.96 (0.85-1.09)0.89 (0.78-1.01)0.19
Prostate cancer
    No. of cases310327345321283
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.99 (0.85-1.16)1.03 (0.88-1.20)0.95 (0.81-1.11)0.89 (0.75-1.06)0.12
Bladder cancer
    No. of cases102105988393
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.98 (0.75-1.30)0.91 (0.69-1.21)0.77 (0.57-1.04)0.90 (0.66-1.22)0.28
Colorectal cancer
    No. of cases1061108397111
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.99 (0.76-1.30)0.73 (0.55-0.98)0.85 (0.64-1.14)1.01 (0.76-1.35)0.99
Stomach cancer
    No. of cases6657787657
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.85 (0.60-1.22)1.17 (0.84-1.63)1.15 (0.82-1.62)0.90 (0.61-1.32)0.95
Kidney cancer
    No. of cases6375526040
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.21 (0.87-1.70)0.87 (0.60-1.27)1.05 (0.73-1.52)0.80 (0.52-1.22)0.20
Pancreatic cancer
    No. of cases5941684461
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.65 (0.43-0.97)1.06 (0.74-1.52)0.67 (0.45-1.00)0.94 (0.64-1.40)0.97
Hematopoietic
    No. of cases7774675452
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.95 (0.69-1.30)0.85 (0.61-1.18)0.68 (0.47-0.97)0.71 (0.49-1.04)0.03
Oropharynx cancer
    No. of cases2836284149
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.10 (0.67-1.81)0.78 (0.46-1.33)1.03 (0.62-1.69)1.06 (0.64-1.76)0.76
Larynx cancer
    No. of cases2725292239
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.86 (0.50-1.49)0.95 (0.56-1.63)0.70 (0.39-1.25)1.20 (0.70-2.05)0.47
Liver cancer
    No. of cases5534323436
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.60 (0.39-0.93)0.55 (0.35-0.86)0.58 (0.37-0.91)0.61 (0.38-0.97)0.05
Brain cancer
    No. of cases99131015
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.87 (0.34-2.20)1.16 (0.49-2.75)0.83 (0.33-2.11)1.11 (0.45-2.73)0.80
Melanoma
    No. of cases1818231311
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.06 (0.55-2.05)1.44 (0.77-2.70)0.85 (0.41-1.78)0.87 (0.39-1.94)0.59
Esophageal cancer
    No. of cases1317131836
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.10 (0.53-2.28)0.75 (0.35-1.65)0.93 (0.45-1.96)1.60 (0.80-3.19)0.08
  • *Rates are per 100,000 person-years, directly standardized to the age distribution of the cohort.

  • Adjusted for age.

  • Adjusted for age, intervention, level of education, systolic blood pressure, BMI, physical activity, duration of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, saturated fat intake, polyunsaturated fat intake, total calorie intake, alcohol consumption, and serum total cholesterol.

  • §Excluded cases ascertained during the first 3 y of follow-up.

  • Excluded cases ascertained during the first 9 y of follow-up.

  • Excluded cases ascertained during the first 12 y of follow-up.

  • **Excluded cases ascertained during the first 15 y of follow-up.