Table 2.

RRs and 95% CIs of cancer in relation to serum total cholesterol, ATBC Study cohort, 1985 to 2003 (N = 29,093)

Type of cancerTotal cholesterol (mg/dL)P
Quintile 1 (<203.9)Quintile 2 (203.9-227.6)Quintile 3 (227.7-249.2)Quintile 4 (249.3-276.6)Quintile 5 (>276.7)
All cancers
    No. of cases1,6161,5211,4791,5031,412
    Age-standardized rate*2,2082,0461,9561,9661,892
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.93 (0.87-1.00)0.89 (0.83-0.95)0.89 (0.83-0.96)0.86 (0.80-0.92)<0.0001
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.92 (0.86-0.99)0.88 (0.82-0.95)0.89 (0.83-0.95)0.85 (0.79-0.91)<0.0001
Lag analysis
    No. of cases§1,3811,3401,3131,3091,281
    RR (95% CI),§1 (reference)0.94 (0.88-1.02)0.93 (0.86-1.00)0.91 (0.85-0.99)0.90 (0.83-0.97)0.006
    No. of cases708724708741693
    RR (95% CI),1 (reference)1.01 (0.92-1.12)0.99 (0.89-1.09)0.99 (0.90-1.09)0.96 (0.87-1.06)0.37
    No. of cases519514506522504
    RR (95% CI),1 (reference)0.98 (0.87-1.11)0.97 (0.86-1.09)0.97 (0.86-1.10)0.96 (0.85-1.08)0.49
    No. of cases**202185206209200
RR (95% CI)§,**1 (reference)0.93 (0.76-1.13)1.04 (0.86-1.26)1.01 (0.83-1.23)1.00 (0.82-1.22)0.78
Lung cancer
    No. of cases566547498534473
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.95 (0.84-1.07)0.87 (0.77-0.98)0.92 (0.82-1.03)0.81 (0.72-0.92)0.0006
Prostate cancer
    No. of cases323314317330302
     RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.94 (0.80-1.10)0.94 (0.81-1.10)0.97 (0.83-1.13)0.90 (0.77-1.05)0.09
Bladder cancer
    No. of cases1138286100100
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.71 (0.53-0.94)0.75 (0.57-0.99)0.86 (0.66-1.13)0.87 (0.66-1.14)0.40
Colorectal cancer
    No. of cases1061161009293
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.05 (0.81-1.37)0.91 (0.69-1.19)0.84 (0.63-1.11)0.86 (0.65-1.13)0.06
Stomach cancer
    No. of cases7365795265
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.87 (0.62-1.21)1.05 (0.76-1.45)0.69 (0.48-0.99)0.86 (0.62-1.21)0.48
Kidney cancer
    No. of cases6068585450
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.08 (0.76-1.52)0.91 (0.63-1.30)0.83 (0.57-1.20)0.76 (0.52-1.10)0.08
Pancreatic cancer
    No. of cases5953554759
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.87 (0.60-1.26)0.90 (0.63-1.31)0.77 (0.52-1.13)0.96 (0.67-1.38)0.73
Hematopoietic
    No. of cases6779546163
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.15 (0.83-1.60)0.79 (0.55-1.12)0.89 (0.63-1.26)0.92 (0.65-1.30)0.22
Oropharynx cancer
    No. of cases4232283842
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.75 (0.48-1.20)0.65 (0.40-1.05)0.89 (0.58-1.39)1.00 (0.65-1.54)0.56
Larynx cancer
    No. of cases2329333621
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.24 (0.71-2.14)1.42 (0.83-2.41)1.57 (0.93-2.65)0.90 (0.50-1.64)0.77
Liver cancer
    No. of cases5538343034
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.69 (0.46-1.05)0.63 (0.41-0.97)0.56 (0.36-0.88)0.66 (0.43-1.01)0.007
Brain cancer
    No. of cases512141510
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)2.31 (0.81-6.57)2.78 (1.00-7.72)2.99 (1.08-8.24)1.98 (0.67-5.81)0.23
Melanoma
    No. of cases1714191221
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)0.80 (0.40-1.64)1.11 (0.58-2.15)0.72 (0.34-1.50)1.24 (0.65-2.36)0.44
Esophageal cancer
    No. of cases1720251223
    RR (95% CI)1 (reference)1.15 (0.60-2.20)1.44 (0.77-2.67)0.69 (0.33-1.45)1.37 (0.73-2.57)0.65
  • *Rates are per 100,000 person-years, directly standardized to the age distribution of the cohort.

  • Adjusted for age.

  • Adjusted for age, intervention, level of education, systolic blood pressure, BMI, physical activity, duration of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, saturates fat intake, polyunsaturated fat intake, total calorie, alcohol consumption, and serum HDL cholesterol.

  • §Excluded cases ascertained during the first 3 y of follow-up.

  • Excluded cases ascertained during the first 9 y of follow-up.

  • Excluded cases ascertained during the first 12 y of follow-up.

  • **Excluded cases ascertained during the first 15 y of follow-up.