Table 3.

Results from epidemiologic studies of proposed biomarkers and physical activity in postmenopausal women

Proposed biomarker in bloodType of study design, study results (±/NA) and number of analyses
Classification
Cross-sectional
Case-control
Trial
RCT*
+NA+NA+NA+NA
Estrone3 (61, 63, 255)2 (62, 256)1 (257)1 (18)1 (60)Probable
Estradiol2 (62, 255)5 (61, 63, 64, 258, 259)1 (257)1 (18)1 (60)Possible
Testosterone1 (62)3 (61, 255, 256)1 (257)2 (240, 260)1 (19)Possible
Androstenedione2 (63, 255)2 (61, 62)2 (19, 60)Possible
SHBG1 (261)4 (63, 258, 259, 262)2 (240, 263)1 (260)1 (18)Possible
Leptin2 (127, 128)1 (264)2 (16, 129)Probable
Adiponectin1 (147)1 (129)Hypothesized
TNF-α2 (157, 158)1 (128)1 (129)Hypothesized
Interleukin-62 (157, 173)1 (158)Hypothesized
CRP2 (157, 214)1 (265)1 (129)Convincing
Insulin, glucose, C-peptideReviews generally promote moderate weight loss with exercise to improve insulin sensitivity (101, 105) and prevent diabetes (7, 76, 102, 104).Convincing (general population)
Body weight, BMIClinical guidelines for weight loss in the United States (39) and Canada (40) advocate long-term regular exercise to induce modest weight loss in overweight and obese adults.Convincing (general population)
  • NOTE: +, −, and NA P > 0.05.

  • * The associations deemed “+” or “−” were based on the change observed in exercisers versus the change observed in controls with the exception of the RCT described by Giannopoulou et al. (129),which did not include a control arm; rather, the results at baseline were compared with the end of study within the exercise only arm.