Table 2.

Selected characteristics of head and neck cancer cases and controls

TotalNever tobacco users
Never tobacco/alcohol users
Cases (n = 542), n (%)Controls (n = 2,197), n (%)Cases (n = 257), n (%)Controls (n = 1,013), n (%)
Study
    Tampa37 (6.83)345 (15.70)20 (7.78)209 (20.63)
    Los Angeles115 (21.22)453 (20.62)42 (16.34)169 (16.68)
    Houston186 (34.32)374 (17.02)108 (42.02)238 (23.49)
    Puerto Rico32 (5.90)211 (9.60)18 (7.00)83 (8.19)
Latin America
    Cuba10 (1.85)41 (1.87)6 (2.33)21 (2.07)
    Porto Alegre7 (1.29)46 (2.09)7 (2.72)27 (2.67)
    Rio de Janeiro23 (4.24)75 (3.41)12 (4.67)43 (4.24)
    São Paulo25 (4.61)116 (5.28)9 (3.50)66 (6.52)
    Pelotas11 (2.03)88 (4.01)8 (3.11)63 (6.22)
    Goiânia12 (2.21)70 (3.19)5 (1.95)27 (2.67)
    Buenos Aires35 (6.46)70 (3.19)15 (5.84)20 (1.97)
Central Europe
    Bucharest13 (2.40)95 (4.32)2 (0.78)19 (1.88)
    Budapest1 (0.18)6 (0.27)0 (0.00)1 (0.10)
    Lodz2 (0.37)45 (2.05)2 (0.78)4 (0.39)
    Moscow31 (5.72)123 (5.60)3 (1.17)17 (1.68)
    Banská Bystrica2 (0.37)39 (1.78)0 (0.00)6 (0.59)
Age (y)
    <4059 (10.89)186 (8.47)30 (11.67)89 (8.79)
    40-4448 (8.86)185 (8.42)25 (9.73)89 (8.79)
    45-4973 (13.47)283 (12.88)33 (12.84)117 (11.55)
    50-5481 (14.94)397 (18.07)40 (15.56)168 (16.58)
    55-5981 (14.94)366 (16.66)27 (10.51)165 (16.29)
    60-6454 (9.96)268 (12.20)23 (8.95)136 (13.43)
    65-6939 (7.20)221 (10.06)19 (7.39)103 (10.17)
    70-7455 (10.15)173 (7.87)30 (11.67)80 (7.90)
    ≥7552 (9.59)118 (5.37)30 (11.67)66 (6.52)
P for χ2 test<0.0010.004
Sex
    Female217 (40.04)936 (42.60)145 (56.42)559 (55.18)
    Male325 (59.96)1,261 (57.40)112 (43.58)454 (44.82)
P for χ2 test0.2780.722
Race/ethnicity*
    White332 (61.25)1,302 (59.26)153 (59.53)505 (49.85)
    Black20 (3.69)137 (6.24)10 (3.89)81 (8.00)
    Hispanic43 (7.93)166 (7.56)19 (7.39)111 (10.96)
    Asian and Pacific Islander19 (3.51)41 (1.87)12 (4.67)30 (2.96)
    Others5 (0.92)45 (2.05)1 (0.39)19 (1.88)
    Latin American123 (22.69)506 (23.03)62 (24.12)267 (26.36)
P for χ2 test0.0180.006
Education
    Junior high school or less126 (23.77)516 (24.26)66 (26.19)276 (28.51)
    Some high school37 (6.98)152 (7.15)14 (5.56)56 (5.79)
    High school graduate88 (16.60)342 (16.08)43 (17.06)166 (17.15)
    Technical school some college100 (18.87)392 (18.43)57 (22.62)199 (20.56)
    College graduate or higher179 (33.77)725 (34.09)72 (28.57)271 (28.00)
    Missing12 (—)70 (—)5 (—)45 (—)
P for χ2 test0.9960.934
  • * Information on ethnicity was not collected in the Central Europe and Latin America studies. In the Central Europe study, all subjects were classified as non-Hispanic White because the large majority of these populations are expected to be White. In the Latin America study, we categorized subjects as “Latin American.” We adjusted for study center in all logistic regression models as a proxy variable for race/ethnicity because each center has an expected predominant ethnic group distribution.