Table 4.

HRs and 95% CIs of proximal and distal colon cancer according to quartile of energy-adjusted intake of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food in the JPHC study

Men
Women
Proximal colon
Distal colon
Proximal colon
Distal colon
No. casesHR (95% CI)*No. casesHR (95% CI)*No. casesHR (95% CI)*No. casesHR (95% CI)*
Isoflavones
    Lowest381.00 (Reference)421.00 (Reference)261.00 (Reference)231.00 (Reference)
    2nd410.79 (0.50-1.25)511.15 (0.76-1.75)361.15 (0.69-1.91)190.70 (0.38-1.30)
    3rd300.49 (0.29-0.81)531.21 (0.78-1.86)421.18 (0.71-1.97)230.76 (0.41-1.39)
    Highest360.55 (0.33-0.92)430.98 (0.61-1.57)421.10 (0.65-1.85)321.02 (0.57-1.84)
P for trend0.0070.950.790.76
Miso soup
    Lowest301.00 (Reference)431.00 (Reference)301.00 (Reference)191.00 (Reference)
    2nd380.96 (0.59-1.56)470.98 (0.64-1.49)320.90 (0.54-1.48)221.04 (0.56-1.93)
    3rd420.91 (0.56-1.47)490.97 (0.63-1.49)400.91 (0.56-1.49)351.42 (0.80-2.54)
    Highest350.72 (0.43-1.21)500.92 (0.60-1.43)440.90 (0.55-1.47)210.83 (0.44-1.60)
P for trend0.200.730.740.84
Soy food
    Lowest351.00 (Reference)471.00 (Reference)251.00 (Reference)241.00 (Reference)
    2nd440.91 (0.58-1.44)521.03 (0.68-1.54)391.25 (0.75-2.09)210.72 (0.40-1.31)
    3rd400.76 (0.47-1.22)410.80 (0.52-1.25)411.19 (0.71-2.00)210.67 (0.37-1.24)
    Highest260.51 (0.30-0.87)491.01 (0.65-1.55)411.16 (0.69-1.97)311.08 (0.61-1.92)
P for trend0.0090.770.720.73
  • * Adjusted for age (continuous); public health center area (nine centers); history of diabetes mellitus (yes or no); body mass index (<20, 21-22, 23-24, ≥25 kg/m2); leisure time physical activity (rarely, 1-3 d per month, 1-2 d per week, frequently); cigarette smoking (never, past, current 1-19 cigarettes per day, current ≥20 cigarettes per day); alcohol drinking (nondrinker, 1-3 d per month, <100 g ethanol per week, ≥100 g ethanol per week); and intake of vitamin D, dairy products, meat, vegetable, fruit, and fish (energy-adjusted quartiles). Also adjusted for menopausal status (pre or post) and current use of female hormones (user or nonuser) in women only.