Table 2.

Six-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from the raw data

6-gingerolDose = 1,000 mg (N = 6)
Dose = 1,500 mg (N = 3)
Dose = 2,000 mg (N = 8)
Mean ± SDMin (max)Mean ± SDMin (max)Mean ± SDMin (max)
    AUC*12.6 (6.4)3.6 (20.5)75.6 (110.3)8.6 (203.0)65.6 (44.4)10.5 (162.6)
    Cmax*0.4 (0.2)0.2 (0.7)1.69 (2.31)0.20 (4.36)0.85 (0.43)0.19 (1.56)
    t½110.0 (34.9)86.6 (186.0)
    tmax55.0 (7.7)45.0 (60.0)60.0 (0.0)60.0 (60.0)65.6 (22.6)45.0 (120.0)
8-gingerol
    AUC2.1 (2.2)0 (4.5)2.6 (2.0)1.1 (4.9)18.1 (20.3)2.8 (65.2)
    Cmax0.1 (0.1)0 (0.2)0.1 (0.1)0.03 (0.13)0.23 (0.16)0.06 (0.50)
    t½113.5 (41.1)90.0 (180.0)
    tmax52.5 (8.7)45.0 (60.0)60.0 (0.0)60.0 (60.0)73.1 (29.4)45.0 (120.0)
10-gingerol
    AUC2.9 (3.2)0 (7.9)7.7 (5.3)3.7 (13.7)50.1 (49.3)4.2 (156.9)
    Cmax0.1 (0.1)0 (0.4)0.1 (0.02)0.08 (0.12)0.53 (0.4)0.11 (1.33)
    t½128.7 (38.8)90.0 (182.7)
    tmax60.0 (0.0)60.0 (60.0)80.0 (34.6)60.0 (120.0)75.0 (27.8)60.0 (120.0)
6-shogaol
    AUC0.8 (1.5)0 (3.7)1.6 (2.8)0 (4.9)10.9 (13.0)1.7 (40.3)
    Cmax0.1 (0.1)0 (0.1)0.04 (0.08)0 (0.13)0.15 (0.12)0.02 (0.34)
    t12120.4 (42.0)85.9 (180.0)
    tmax55.0 (8.7)45.0 (60.0)60.0 (0.0)60.0 (60.0)65.6 (22.6)45.0 (120.0)
  • NOTE: AUC was determined by the trapezoid rule; t12 was determined by means of linear interpolation.

  • * AUC and Cmax are recorded as μg/mL.

  • t½ and tmax are recorded in minutes.

  • These results are based on detectable free gingerols and shogaols after incubation with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase and thus represent combined conjugates.