Table 2.

Main dietary sources of total flavonoids and flavonoid subgroups among participants during the PPT (n = 1,859)

FlavonoidMain dietary sources (≥5% of total intake)*
Total flavonoidsTea (30.0%), citrus fruit juices (17.2%), other fruits (grapes, plums, pineapples: 8.9%), oranges (7.2%), dry beans (6.0%), grapefruits (5.6%)
AnthocyaninsOther fruits (grapes, plums, pineapples: 44.8%), bananas (18.7%), other fruit juices (apple, cranberry, and grape juices: 13.5%), fresh strawberries (7.0%), apples (5.4%)
Flavan-3-olsTea (70.5%), other fruits (grapes, plums, pineapples: 6.2%), apples (6.2%), bananas (5.1%)
FlavanonesCitrus fruit juices (57.1%), oranges (23.4%), grapefruit (18.5%)
FlavonesOther vegetables (onions, cucumbers, celery, radishes, peppers: 39.5%), oranges (19.1%), iceberg/red leaf lettuce (7.4%), watermelons (7.3%), wine (7.0%)
FlavonolsDry beans (32.2%), other vegetables (onions, cucumbers, celery, radishes, peppers: 17.8%), tea (9.6%), apples (5.4%)
IsoflavonoidsDry beans (47.1%), peas (43.6%), chili (5.1%)
  • * Flavonoid contents of foods based on USDA flavonoid database release 2 (27); isoflavonoid contents of foods based on USDA isoflavonoid database release 1.3 (23). Contributions of individual foods to composite foods (e.g., other fruits, other fruit juices, other vegetables) are described in Table 3.