Table 2.

Effect of comorbidities on adherence to screens

PSA adherence
DRE screen adherence
Chest X-ray adherence
Flexible sigmoidoscopy screen adherence
nRate (95% CI)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)nRate (95% CI)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)nRate (95% CI)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)nRate (95% CI)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)
High blood pressure
    Yes34767.4 (62.2-72.3)1.1 (0.8-1.6)23560.9 (54.3-67.1)0.9 (0.6-1.4)23564.3 (57.8-70.4)1.0 (0.7-1.6)13855.1 (46.4-63.5)1.0 (0.6-1.7)
    No28464.8 (58.9-70.3)22262.6 (55.9-69.0)22163.4 (56.6-69.7)12461.3 (52.1-69.9)
Coronary heart disease
    Yes8764.4 (53.4-74.4)1.0 (0.6-1.7)6060.0 (46.5-72.4)1.2 (0.6-2.2)6061.7 (48.2-73.9)1.1 (0.6-2.0)4151.2 (35.1-67.1)1.1 (0.5-2.4)
    No45967.3 (62.8-71.6)36561.9 (56.7-66.9)36464.6 (59.4-69.5)18762.6 (55.2-69.5)
Stroke
    Yes3467.7 (49.5-82.6)1.2 (0.5-2.6)2955.2 (35.7-73.6)1.0 (0.4-2.1)2864.3 (44.1-81.4)1.4 (0.6-3.2)1656.2 (29.9-80.3)1.4 (0.4-4.5)
    No48367.1 (62.7-71.3)38262.6 (57.5-67.4)38264.7 (59.6-69.5)20063.0 (55.9-69.7)
Chronic bronchitis
    Yes3050.0 (31.3-68.7)0.5 (0.2-1.1)2544.0 (24.4-65.1)0.5 (0.2-1.2)2544.0 (24.4-65.1)0.4 (0.2-1.0)1450.0 (23.0-77.0)0.6 (0.2-1.9)
    No48568.0 (63.7-72.2)38463.5 (58.5-68.4)38366.1 (61.1-70.8)20064.0 (56.9-70.7)
Diabetes
    Yes13363.9 (55.1-72.1)0.9 (0.6-1.4)9661.5 (51.0-71.2)1.1 (0.6-1.8)9566.3 (55.9-75.7)1.2 (0.7-2.0)5856.9 (43.2-69.8)1.4 (0.7-2.8)
    No42267.3 (62.6-71.8)33562.1 (56.7-67.3)33564.5 (59.1-69.6)17861.2 (53.7-68.4)
Arthritis
    Yes24566.1 (59.8-72.0)1.1 (0.7-1.5)17560.6 (52.9-67.9)1.0 (0.7-1.6)17564.0 (56.4-71.1)1.2 (0.8-1.8)8751.7 (40.7-62.6)1.0 (0.5-1.8)
    No32666.9 (61.5-72.0)26662.8 (56.7-68.6)26564.2 (58.1-69.9)14765.3 (57.0-73.0)
Gallbladder stones (or inflammation)
    Yes2572.0 (50.6-87.9)1.3 (0.5-3.2)1861.1 (35.7-82.7)1.0 (0.4-2.7)1855.6 (30.8-78.5)0.7 (0.2-1.7)771.4 (29.0-96.3)2.5 (0.4-15.8)
    No48567.2 (62.8-71.4)38662.4 (57.4-67.3)38565.2 (60.2-70.0)20363.0 (56.0-69.7)
Relative ever diagnosed with cancer
    Yes27169.4 (63.5-74.8)1.2 (0.8-1.7)19468.0 (61.0-74.5)1.5 (1.0-2.2)19270.3 (63.3-76.7)1.4 (0.9-2.2)12062.5 (53.2-71.2)1.3 (0.7-2.1)
    No40464.4 (59.5-69.0)29057.9 (52.0-63.7)29160.8 (55.0-66.5)16254.9 (46.9-62.8)
Ever smoker
    Yes48864.6 (60.1-68.8)0.8 (0.5-1.2)36659.6 (54.3-64.6)0.7 (0.4-1.2)36662.0 (56.8-67.0)0.7 (0.4-1.1)20057.5 (50.3-64.4)0.7 (0.4-1.2)
    No18771.1 (64.1-77.5)11869.5 (60.3-77.6)11772.7 (63.6-80.5)8259.8 (48.3-70.4)
Current smoker
    Yes16758.7 (50.8-66.2)0.6 (0.4-0.9)13752.6 (43.8-61.1)0.6 (0.4-0.9)13854.4 (45.7-62.9)0.5 (0.3-0.8)7051.4 (39.2-63.6)0.5 (0.3-1.0)
    No50868.9 (64.7-72.9)34765.7 (60.4-70.8)34568.7 (63.5-73.6)21260.4 (53.4-67.0)
  • NOTE: The reference group was the group responding “no” to the presence of a comorbidity. 95% CI, confidence interval.

    §P < 0.001.

  • * Adjusted for age, income, education, and intervention status.

  • P < 0.05.

  • P < 0.01.