Table 3.

Distributions and risk estimates of lung cancer for spontaneous and NNK-induced micronuclei (mononucleated)

Case patients, n (%)Control subjects, n (%)Odds ratio (95% CI)*
MN as a dichotomy
Pearson's χ2 test
    Spontaneous
        0-281 (58.3)112 (86.2)1.0
        ≥358 (41.7)18 (13.8)3.96 (1.98-7.92)
        PPV76.3
    NNK induced
        0-24 (2.9)94 (72.4)1.0
        ≥3135 (91.1)36 (27.7)75.12 (24.46-230.68)
        PPV78.9
Micronuclei as continuous variable (multivariate logistic regression analysis)
Spontaneous2.10 (1.59-2.76)
NNK-induced5.43 (3.46-8.52)
  • Abbreviation: PPV, Positive predictive value.

  • * Adjusted by age, sex, history of alcohol use, number of years smoked, and number of cigarettes smoked per day.